Thinking Processes can be improved by learning to observe the distinction, and by learning interpretation, understanding analysis, as well as summarizing, organizing, and meaning-making. The thinking process needs the right environment that can stimulate the process and the biological function.
Remember that interpretation requires analysis, and without having clear understandings of the data and its characteristics the interpretation will be failed. Sometimes, the memory’s capacity can limit the process, that’s why inspiration could be the nutritional nerve for the thinking process. Network connection leads to inspiration, so stay always connected.
Criticizing and analyzing the thinking process is an evaluation tool for improvement. People analyzing their thinking diffidently, some use notes and some calculate and some decide by themselves and some get help from others. in science analyses could be done by Qualitative and Quantitative analyses. Qualitative analyses are as important as quantitative analyses. Silver & Lewins 2010 provide an overview of CAQDAS tools concerning how they support these qualitative activities.
Coronavirus (Covid-19) is transmitted, like all other viruses that attack the respiratory system. The infection can be transmitted from an infected person to others in many forms, depending on the traditions in the communities. The most common form is the form of a spray. The infection happens when the infected person sneezes, coughs, or speaks near the other at a distance of less than one or two meters. That can also be transmitted through close contact without any action. That’s why we recommend social distancing. As in the Swedish social lifestyle, especially now during the pandemic time. The infection can happen also, when a person faces air droplets and then touching his nose, ear, or mouth. As well as during handshaking. That’s why we recommend for this reason the Japanese greetings.
Corona virus can be easily shared, during sharing food and personal tools. That’s why don’t share with other food dishes, drink cups, towels, and napkins. Thus, the best strategy to face Coronavirus is to eat in your own dish, follow the Swedish social lifestyle, and do the Japanese greetings. As well as avoid contact with people who have symptoms of respiratory disease.
Health Behaviors and Pathways TO Adulthood
Health behaviors are associated with pathways to adulthood because they have the potential to durably influence a young person’s emotional, cognitive, and social capital. As well as the biological function and structure. In turn, these sources of capital affect young people’s capacities to succeed in the educational, labor, sport, and marriage markets. Indeed, children and adolescents exposed to detrimental parental health behaviors. Especially those who also adopt detrimental health behaviors themselves may have diminished cognitive, emotional, and social capacities that then constrain opportunities to pursue pathways to adulthood involving higher education and/or family formation.
Health Behavior Key Factors
Adolescent health behaviors are associated with combinations of school, work, and family careers that characterize distinct pathways to adulthood. As well as the environment in general and home environment in particular, type of peers, limited access to inspiration, eating practice, and socioeconomic status.
Stigma As an Example
For instance, the stigma associated with being overweight carries over to the labor market with heavier people facing wage penalties and a lower likelihood of promotion to managerial positions. BMI Adolescent health behaviors may also have cognitive, emotional, and social consequences that, in turn, affect young people’s capacities to succeed in schools, workplaces, and marriage markets.
Adolescence Stage is Very Important
Adolescents should be considered as an important target group for health promotion efforts since persistent health behaviors begin to solidify in adolescence.
Parents or other family members can structure home environments in order to help the child develop healthy eating habits. The home environment affects children’s appetite by manipulation of dietary tastes in order to encourage eating. Especially when fussiness and picky eating are existing and by restricting or limiting the food access when obesity exists (Backett et al. 2010); (Gibson and Cooke 2017). Also, we should focus on the emotional dimension, there the emotional climate in which eating takes place (Albon, 2005). Eating a healthy diet is important for the development of the brain and connection tissues. As well as for building the immunity and nervous system.
A wide range of global, regional, and national policies and actions are in place to reduce the harmful use of alcohol. The latest causal relationships suggested by research are those between the harmful use of alcohol and infectious diseases such as tuberculosis and HIV/AIDS. Alcohol-related harm is determined by the volume of alcohol consumed, the pattern of drinking, and, on rare occasions, the quality of alcohol consumed. The harmful use of alcohol is a component cause of more than 200 disease and injury conditions in individuals, most notably alcohol dependence, liver cirrhosis, cancers, and injuries. Such consequences may affect your capacities to succeed in schools, workplaces, and marriage markets.
The risk of smoking may be associated with depression and the risk of depression can be associated with a genetic variant because health is a function of genetic and environmental exposures. So one factor can lead to another factor and the accumulation of the factors can increase the risk of smoking. Smoking may cause biological aging such as heart disease and increased risk of getting lung cancer. Smoking may directly result in subclinical atherosclerosis through an inﬂammatory effect on the arterial wall, but it also reduces exercise behavior due to respiratory symptoms. This in turn results in reduced aerobic capacity but also increases obesity. This in turn results in insulin resistance syndrome and is a risk factor for coronary heart disease. That affects the capacities to succeed in schools, workplaces, and marriage markets.
The high prevalence of physical inactivity is a global problem, that contributes to increased morbidity, cardiovascular diseases, cancers, musculoskeletal diseases, chronic respiratory diseases, mental illness and diabetes, higher rates of premature death, obesity, overweight and increased, weakness, as well as economic costs. The well-trained individual has a better opportunity to be attractive for working place. Consequently, that may affect your capacities to succeed in schools, workplaces, and marriage markets. Therefore, training at least two days a week could improve your biological and social state and keep you away from diseases.
Suicide is a global public health concern, especially among adolescents. Physical activity has a positive effect on the prevention and treatment of common psychiatric disorders. In a Cross-sectional study from the Global School-based Student Health Survey. They assess the association between physical activity and suicide attempts among adolescents. The study included 136,857 adolescents, from 48 countries. The adolescents aged 12-15 years.
They found that meeting physical activity guidelines was associated with lower odds for suicide attempts in boys (OR=0.78) But not for girls (OR=1.22; 95%CI=1.10-1.35).
As a result engagement in physical activity may be an effective strategy for the prevention of suicide attempts for boys but not for girls. That’s why we should care more about girls and meet their needs.
An imbalance in the gut Microbiota may have negative effects on neurodevelopment, cognition, and behavior. Recently for the first time. A randomized controlled trial study, conducted on 180 participants aged 18–65 years old, to determine the effects of supplementation with synbiotics on reducing impulsive and compulsive behavior. The participants who have been followed. Have had highly impulsive behavior and a diagnosis of attention-deficit and or hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and or personality disorder.
The outcome was measured, by changes in general psychopathology, ADHD symptoms, neurocognitive function, somatic parameters, gastrointestinal symptoms, physical activity, nutritional intake, and health-related quality of life. Moreover, explored the effect of the intervention on genetics, microbiota, and several blood biomarkers.
There is a relation between the intestinal microbiome and the brain. For instance changes in human microbiota composition have been consistently found in individuals with an autism spectrum disorder. Bad alterations in microbiota composition have been shown to have implications for brain development and social behavior. Which may lead to Impulsivity and compulsivity. The study hypothesized that supplementation with synbiotics may be an effective treatment in adults with high levels of impulsivity and/or compulsivity.
Not only heritability, gender, and socioeconomic status (SES), but also diet may play a pivotal role in impulsive and compulsive symptomatology. Furthermore, there are other studies that have shown that different nutrient combinations, may have interactive effects with Microbiota and microbiome on cognitive function and behavior. That was including antioxidants, polyunsaturated fatty acids, and monounsaturated fatty acids, omega-3, polyphenols, potassium, calcium, zinc, fiber, folate, vitamins A, B12, C, D, or E., For instance, more specifically. Recent reports have linked aggressive behavior with low blood omega-3 levels and/or with low seafood consumption. Importantly, in all age groups, it has been shown that the type of food intake can influence brain development and function. Also, another study has been shown that prenatal exposure to an unhealthy diet was associated with ADHD symptoms.
Not only the type of nutrition but also the calories affect the brain. It has been shown in several animal studies, that the long-term consumption of a low-calorie diet enhances autophagy and protects neurons effectively against aging, maintaining learning and memory capacity. Whereas long-term consumption of a high-calorie diet facilitates neuronal loss in the hippocampus, aggravating age-related cognitive impairments.
There is also a link between microorganisms in the intestines and Parkinson’s disease. A study has been shown that changes in the composition of gut microbiota or gut bacteria themselves microbiome are actively contributing to cause deterioration of motor skills that are the hallmark of this disease.
“Microorganisms are present everywhere. Their numbers are uncountable, and they live on and in animal and human bodies. It is estimated that around 100 trillion microbes are present in the human body. This number is ten times the number of human cells. Microbiota and microbiome are two terms used to describe these microorganisms. Microbiota refers to all types of microorganisms present in a particular location. Human microbiota refers to the microorganisms present in and on the human body. The term microbiome is used to refer to the entire genetic makeup of the microbiota. The human microbiome refers to the genetic composition of human microbiota”.
Coronavirus maybe caused by climate change. The borne Coronavirus has a high death rate compared to the flu. The death rate of the flu is low and does not exceed 0.006%, while the new Coronavirus kills close to 3% of infected people. Which made him a serious borne disease. The incubation period between the infection of the virus and the appearance of the first symptoms is between two and 14 days. That makes the virus more dangerous.
The 14 days of incubation without symptoms, makes the infection potential and the virus contagious. Therefore it is possible to transmit, before knowing the infected person. It has been knowing that the main symptoms of this disease at the beginning are similar to the symptoms of influenza which are fever, fatigue, and respiratory problems.
According to WHO (2019), the increase in temperatures and the change in rainfall patterns indicate an increased risk for borne diseases such as malaria, dengue fever, and Lyme disease. But is climate change responsible for the emergence and spread of the new coronaviruses? If climate change causes high temperatures or accelerates rain pattern, why studies showed that the coronavirus is inactive in high temperature and rapidly active in low temperature. That means there are other possible causes of the new epidemic virus
Corona Virus is counted as borne disease and usually when such a disaster happens. People tend to run or emigrate from the region that has been infected. That because when transmission or infection disease covers a region. That may affect health status and limit mobility. These effects will lead also to many health effects worldwide. For example, when the temperature rise and the weather get extreme. The borne disease such as malaria virus infection will transmit to other countries.
The borne disease leads also to migration and stigma. The X person will be an immigrant in X country, there he or she may be exposed to racism, stigma, and discrimination or exacerbates marginalization, dis-empowerment, or social exclusion. Then the immigrant x will have negative health effects and then it will be related to mortality and morbidity. (Grove & Zwi, 2006); (Viruell-Fuentes, Miranda, & Abdulrahim, 2012).
The tiny virus was responsible for migration and infection disease among all the world. The tiny virus called Corona because it is surrounded by crowns. Which looks like capsules and made of proteins. The capsules also look like a crown on its surface.
Coronavirus has the characteristic to be a bioweapon. The tiny virus has destroyed the strongest largest economy in the universe. In less than one month. Corona Virus is one of the most viruses which can reproduce itself quickly and known by deadly properties. Corona can infect the lungs, liver, kidneys, heart, and eyes. Coronavirus is a deadly bioweapon. A biological weapon consists of two elements, the offensive biological warfare agent in the first place, and then second, a vaccine to protect your people.
What is the best environment for viruses?
The best environment is the places where humidity is high and beside the watery places. Viruses have many different strains. Viruses can infect a variety of mammals, birds, and humans. The virus is sensitive to heat. Ultraviolet rays. At 4 °C infectious viruses persist for up to 28 days. Coronaviruses are more inactive at 20°C compared to four degrees. Viruses were also more rapidly inactive at 40 °C than 20°C. Because of this characteristic, winter and early spring are the epidemic seasons of the virus disease. Viruses always try to find the best environment to live in. Viruses can make mutations and regenerate their characteristic in order to adapt to the environment.
Corona is it a mutation or a bioweapon?
Today people talk about theories that are claiming that the disaster which happens in china due to the tiny virus, is made by DNA genetic engineer and synthetic biology. As a part of the economic war with China. China has the second-largest economy in the universe. Also, the most powerful military. Asia as a whole will account for 63% of all global GDP growth (PPP). Furthermore, only China comes first by sharing 33% of Global GDP Growth (PPP) in 2019. China comes first, then Japan and after that USA with 11%. The small tiny virus destroyed the economy not only inside China but also in the Chinese small businesses outside of China. Today, nobody eats in Chinese restaurants in Europe. For instance, restaurants in Sweden that belong to Chinese and Thailand have reduced the meal price but nevertheless, nobody enters to eat. The small tiny virus was also responsible for five million people to migrate outside the region.
The Arab world has been destroyed by playing on two tools which are Sectarianism and social media. China doesn’t allow someone to use social media inside the country. China has no place for Sectarianism inside the country. That’s why destroying such a country needs a different tool. The question is what can destroy such a huge country, which presenting always it’s military power. Developing such a virus in the laboratory is possible and not hard for biologists. Some experts say that the Coronavirus contains “HIV insertions”, stoking fears over artificially created bioweapon. They suggest that it might have been genetically engineered for the purposes of a weapon. Thailand found good results after using a mix of two antiviral drugs which usually used for HIV and flu treatment on a Chinese patient who was in a serious condition with the novel coronavirus, according to a health ministry briefing Bloomberg. But the question is who is behind it and why in this time, especially after the finishing of the Syrian war? Who will get the benefit of the outcome?
The second theory is the Bats. Bat is a bird that is likely to be the possible source of the outbreak of the zoonotic Coronavirus, that appeared in China. As it has been found that these organisms have an immune system that allows them to coexist with many pathogenic viruses. People in Asia especially in china eat Bats as we show in the video below. Bats are eaten only by Chinese and Japanese and some other Asian countries. Some experts said that this virus moved from animals to humans and moved the first time in a fish shop in Wuhan and Hubei. It may be moved by lack of personal hygiene or some other ways, nobody knows. What we know right now that the true number of infected people by Coronavirus is still unknown. The question is. Is it a real war or Spontaneous Virus Mutation.
Corona virus is spreading and global health organizations are warning of the risk of infection. Medical experts have explained the safest place on board. That could help you to avoid the infection with the Coronavirus from an infected traveler. Experts designed a model for passenger movement onboard. To show how viruses could spread. Experts found that people who sitting near corridors were more likely to contact the virus. Through the infected passengers.
According to the model the safest place to sit on the plane. In order to avoid getting sick, is next to the window, because in this way you have less chance to contact the virus from the passenger who usually walks in the corridor. The ones who sit in the corridor have a bigger chance to get infected. That because he or she will be on contact always with passengers, who walk beside him or her. That’s why the safest method is, that passengers should remain in their seats. This is because the more they moved on the plane, the greater their chances of being near someone with the disease. Thus increasing the chance of infection.
How I protect myself from corona infection
We believe that the safest way to contain the outbreak or get rid of the virus is to stay at home with an open window. Also, avoid contact with others, especially with infected people. Cook your food to a higher degree and don’t eat raw food such as vegetables and fruits. Don’t use the refrigerator or don’t eat cold food. Wash your dishes well at high temperatures. Don’t mix with others. Don’t travel on buses, or trains and don’t sit in a public area or crawdad room. Wash hands frequently, with alcohol or soap. We also advise that a lack of personal hygiene is a major contributor to infection. Don’t eat at restaurants. Don’t touch your eyes, mouth, or nose before you wash your hands. Don’t be close to others. If you are ill, see a doctor sooner rather than later. Cough on your elbow, not your hands. So you do not spread germs.
How does it spread
person to person transmission through sneezing or coughing
public transport a primary site for the transmission
The incubation period which is between two and 14 days
Moreover, Corona map has expanded to reach Britain and Russia. The spread of the new Coronavirus has expanded, and Britain and Russia have recorded their first infections. While Italy conducted the state of emergency, which are including travel bans, and suspension of flights to China. Also, Japan confirmed the infection of three other people, bringing the total number of cases in Japan to 17 cases.
China still takes strict measures to prevent the spread of the Coronavirus, including quarantining more than 50 million people in Wuhan and Hubei Province. Nevertheless, the number of deaths and infections continued to rise. The World Health Organization, earlier on 05/02/2020. Mentioned that the new Coronavirus, which has spread epidemic in China and appeared in at least 20 other countries. Has no treatment, while China and Thailand claim that have developed a treatment. Moreover, stated that 23,360 confirmed cases of Coronavirus have been registered in only China.
Furthermore, the Hubei Provincial Department of Science and Technology had agreed on January 29 to use stem cell therapy technology for severe diseases caused by a new coronavirus.
Inside a hospital in Wuhan, a patient was deliberately coughing in the face of two nurses, after removing his medical mask, in protest at a drug shortage in the hospital.
— China Nonghua News 中国农华通讯社信 (@NonghuaNews) February 1, 2020
— China Nonghua News 中国农华通讯社信 (@NonghuaNews) January 31, 2020
coronaViruses map expands from China to the United States of America, France, Malaysia, South Korea, Singapore, Nepal, Vietnam, Sri Lanka, Australia, Japan, Thailand, UAE, Finland, and Canada. While most countries are taking measures to reduce the spread of infection. Especially in airports and places of gathering.
The World Health Organization, earlier on 05/02/2020. Mentioned that the new Coronavirus, which has spread epidemic in China and appeared in at least 20 other countries. Has no treatment, while China and Thailand claim that have developed a treatment. Moreover, stated that 23,360 confirmed cases of Coronavirus have been registered in only China.
Moreover, the United Arab Emirates has been shared with the Coronavirus. UAE Ministry of Health and Community Protection. Revealed that a chines family inters the country on January 16th who comes from Wuhan has been positively tested with the infection of the epidemic Coronavirus. The symptoms of infection began to appear on them on the 23rd. That led them to go to The nearest health center for examination, and then the injury is discovered. Furthermore, An infected Chinese tourist isolated at Lapland Central Hospital in Rovaniemi in Finland. The case in Finland is the first confirmed case so far in the Nordic countries.
Minister of the Chinese National Health Committee Ma Jiao Wei is saying today that last night the research center in Beijing, reached a certain success to counter this virus. We reached very good results during the night, but we need 24 hours for some procedures before applying it to humans. We have consumed these 24 hours 12 hours, to ensure the correctness of its application. In order to allow its use in humans if the results are positive.
Corona viruses, according to WHO, are a common family that causes diseases ranging from common colds to more severe illnesses such as MERS respiratory syndrome and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). China says the coronavirus can spread before symptoms show.
The symptoms of the Coronavirus, appear in the form of fever, cough, headache, nasal gonorrhea, general fatigue, a feeling of exhaustion, muscle and joint pain, vomiting, and diarrhea. The infection may cause pneumonia, kidney failure, and even death.
The general of the World Health Organization (WHO). Tedros Adhanum Gebriusos, announced on Sunday, that he is on his way to the Chinese capital, Beijing. In the context of the efforts to combat the Coronavirus. Tedros said I am “On my way to Beijing, I will meet with a number of government officials and health experts involved in the fight against the Coronavirus,”. He also wrote on Twitter. “My colleagues and I are looking forward to seeing the latest developments in the virus and strengthening our partnership with China in providing more protection from it,” he added.
Obesity Prevention Strategies presented by Astrakos’ society for public health, in this episode, we will teach you the childhood obesity prevention strategies, and how to secure your family from obesity, and what are the main factors that lead to it.
Usually, the pathway of life course effected often, by many involved factors, such as society, neighborhood, family, the individual, area, the cellular levels, the physiological and psychological aspect, as well as, the social exposures.
Recently life course epidemiologists explain how a father’s social class, in childhood, may affect the biological functions and the development of the adults. That means we must be careful about our children and understand that the bad social exposures, can affect negatively the health of our children, especially in puberty.
According to the world health organization, Everybody, less than 18 years of age, has the right of the child and considered as a child. That was adopted by the convention on the rights of the Child.
Childhood is the primary stage of life. What we eat, and do in childhood, has a big effect on adulthood life. Obesity is not only caused by food, but also by social aspects. Obesity rates have increased dramatically over the world in the last 30 years, the World Health Organization is raising the awareness about overweight, and obesity. Due to the increased number of obesity among children. In 2016, an estimated 42 million children under the age of 5, were overweight, or obese. Almost three-quarters of these, live in Asia and Africa. Overweight and obesity in early childhood, increase the risk for social discrimination, sleep apnea, high cholesterol, high blood pressure, type 2 diabetes, and obesity later in life.
Astrakos report is presenting a comprehensive and integrated package, of recommendations, to guide families to address childhood obesity. To create, healthy eating practices, and habits, to prevent obesity among children worldwide. Here we will summarize some key of actions, that are directed to the parents.
Childhood Obesity Prevention Strategies
Parents should promote the intake of healthy foods, which is rich in unsaturated fats, and omega 3, also food should be free from sugars or salt. Parents should also, reduce the intake of unhealthy foods at home.
The unhealthy foods are the foods, which are high in saturated fatty acids, trans- fats, and sugar-sweetened beverages, as well as the energy-dense foods, which have lots of calories per serving. The calories may come from protein, fat, or carbohydrates.
Inform your child, about childhood overweight and obesity, and tell l them about, the consequences of that on health and well-being.
Increase access to healthy foods at home.
Update your health information always, to get an effective prevention guide, of childhood obesity through the consumption of a healthy diet throughout the life course.
Ensure that nutrition information and guidelines for adolescents and children are delivered to adolescents and children in a simple, understandable, and, accessible manner.
Reduce the exposure of children and adolescents, to the power of the marketing of unhealthy foods.
Control the OBESOGENIC ENVIRONMENT, which promotes high energy intake, and sedentary behavior. This includes the foods, that are available, affordable, accessible, and promoted.
Control the physical activity opportunities, and the social norms, concerning food, and physical activity
Develop nutrient profiles, to identify unhealthy foods and beverages
Guide caregivers, on appropriate nutrition, diet, and portion size.
Implement comprehensive programs, that promote physical activity, and reduce sedentary behaviors in children and adolescents
Promote healthy lifestyles, for young children through promoting physical activity, because physical activity, is known to reduce the risk of diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and cancers.
Improve children’s ability to learn their mental health, and well-being. Childhood experience can influence lifelong by physical activity behaviors.
Promote the benefits of physical activity.
Provide guidance to children and adolescents, on healthy body size, physical activity, sleep behaviors, and appropriate use of screen-based entertainment.
Pregnancy is a very critical pathway for child obesity. The risk of obesity can be passed from one generation to the next, because, maternal health, can influence fetal development, and the risk of a child becoming obese.
The care, that women receive before during, and after pregnancy, has profound implications for the later health, and development of their children.
Diagnose and manage hyperglycemia, and gestational hypertension.
Promote a varied diet with all macro and micronutrients.
Promote plant-based foods such as vegetables, fruit, potatoes, whole grain products.
Ensure that diet and nutrition counseling is included in antenatal care.
Avoid the use of and exposure to tobacco, alcohol, drugs, and other toxins.
Provide guidance on and support for, healthy diet, sleep, and physical activity, in early childhood, to ensure that children grow appropriately, and develop healthy habits.
Including the breastfeeding, for the first six months of life, because breastfeeding is the core for optimizing infant development.
Work on early detection, and management of obesity and its associated complications.
Address health nutrition for weight management
Give psychosocial support. The mental health needs of children who are overweight or obese are crucial, including issues of stigmatization and bullying, need to be given special attention.
Obesity can be increased by, the physical environment, such as proximity to grocery stores, vending machines, and access to school food and drink.
Share with your child the foods that contribute to healthy diets, if it is not consumed in appropriate amounts.
Use social media to provide guidance on and support for a healthy diet. Studies have been shown that social media is a perfect way to influence your child.
As a caregiver, be the con-founder that affects the association, not the mediator.
Consider that adolescents will tend to eat the foods, that are available, affordable, accessible, and promoted.
Parents could affect the adolescents’ food choices by the same tools, that have been applied to the adolescents, which is social media.
Obesity leads to bullying, and harassment, oppositional defiant disorder and, conduct disorder.
Improve the availability of mechanisms for purchasing foods from farms.
Plan a physical education at least two times a week.
Improve access to outdoor activity.
Stay in touch with the healthcare center.
This was a presentation of the 37 key of actions, of Astrakos alexanders’ report, after reading all these keys, we on astrakos’ society we confirm that motivation is not enough, moving from motivation to actions could help much more. Also, we focus on parents, because parental values could affect the home environment, Parental values stand for the identity, that parents are caring, which usually impacted by personal thoughts and feeling. Furthermore, the perception that family receive from the public sources, selective services and education which include all, such as, internet, books, magazine, TV, and advertisement, as well as when parents, grandparents or friends undermine their rules over the children’s eating
Climate change, recently the climate crisis has been highlighted due to the impacts of climate change and air emissions on health and human wellbeing. The consequences are not only facing the health and wellbeing, but also facing the ecological, political, and societal crises. Climate change only made its way into the world’s focus in the early 2000s, even though scientists knew about it as early as the 1980s. Such a global threat is affecting the global in different ways and mechanisms. It is important to understand these ways and mechanisms because these will affect the human’s behaver and decision making in different ways. According to Watts, Adger, Agnolucci, Blackstock, Byass, and Cai, (2015), when temperature increases by global warming, the global health will be affected by direct and indirect mechanisms, which will interact with the social dynamics to produce the health outcomes. That means the direct risks will include increased heat stress, ﬂoods, and drought, as well as increased frequency of intense storms. The indirect risks will mediate through changes in the biosphere which can also lead to negative health effects.
Climate change can be translated to many forms of environmental and health degradations including, rising sea levels, hurricanes, water scarcity, reduced rainfall in drylands, and all these could be later translated to health issues and migration. All these effects will have an impact on global health, and global patterns of migration in multiple ways. The effects will have different pathways and mechanisms, and all these pathways and mechanisms will contribute to defining human health and behavior, as well as decision making. Usually, the extreme rainfall events translate into ﬂoods. Furthermore, the regions of large population growth are most exposed to the ﬂood risk, especially in sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia. The same storm and floods could affect also the migration pattern in indirect ways, for example when the water quality is degreasing by the storm and floods, then, infection disease will be spreading and that may lead to emigration. Also, when land use is changing by floods and when more ecological changes occur, then all these could lead to emigration either in an indirect way or by the health impact that will happen by the social dynamics, which could be affected by direct and indirect ways. The social dynamics are such: poor health status, socioeconomic status, and public health infrastructure. The health impact may look like allergies, respiratory disease, cardiovascular disease, injures, poisoning, undernutrition, mental illness, and infectious disease. (Watts et al. 2015); (Ridde, Benmarhnia, Bonnet, Bottger, Cloos, & Dagenais, 2019).
Mahmooei, and Parris (2012), stated that Bangladesh is one of the most countries which is vulnerable to climate change impacts such as extreme weather events. Also, as a result of climate change in Bangladesh, the migration dynamics will be increased in the coming years. Furthermore, Watts et al. (2015) stated that the risks related to water shortages and ﬂood are involving large populations, the author warned that “an additional 50 million people and 30 000 km² of land could be aﬀected by coastal storm surges in 2100, with attendant risks of direct deaths and of infectious diseases” (P. 1873). This essay will identify and demonstrates more knowledge and examples about the mechanisms and pathways of the effect of climate change on health and migration as well as how these are related to each other.
Is climate change, migration and health are related to each other?
The mechanisms and pathways
First, it is important to demonstrate the first category of air emissions that are contributing to global climate change, to understand the case. The air emissions are releasing gases, such Nitrous Oxide with the formula (N₂O), this is an oxide of nitrogen. Also, a well-known gas with his damage to the ozone layer called hydrochlorofluorocarbons with the formula (HFC). As well as the Hydrocarbon with the formula (CH₄) and Carbon Dioxide with the formula (CO2). All these gases are contributing to global climate change by increasing the temperature, heatwaves, and extreme weather, as well as by precipitation variation. The direct eﬀects of climate change are including increased heat stress, ﬂoods, drought, and increased frequency of intense storms (Watts et al. 2015).
The direct effect of climate change on health are mediated by frequency, intensity, and duration. When these consequences increase, then the migration will also increase. There has been evidence, that people have migrated to other places. According to UNHCR, (2014); WHO, (2019) Over 1 billion migrants worldwide have emigrated, 258 million international, and 763 million internal. That could be a sign of climate change, because for instance, the storms and floods, will not only lead to health-related issues, such as mental health problems, poor health, shortage in food, and clean water but also will lead to displacement and migration. That because when people are losing their houses or farms, due same floods, and storms, then, they will be forced to emigrate to another place to have a safer environment and houses as well as food availability. Watts et al. (2015) stated that risks related to water shortages and ﬂood are involving large populations. The author warned that “an additional 50 million people and 30 000 km² of land could be aﬀected by coastal storm surges in 2100, with attendant risks of direct deaths and infectious diseases” (P. 1873).
That could be true, for example, when drought and water scarcity dominate the region and when extreme weather events happen and when land degradation and desertification occur, and when the sea levels are rising. Then, as a result, food scarcity will occur, and emigration will increase. People will search for new resources. Also, armed conflicts will increase, which also will lead to migration and mental health problems such as traumatic stress disorder, depression, anxiety, and suicides as well as health inequity (Michael 2013); (Cunsolo & Ellis 2018).
What matters in such cases, is the population vulnerability to the exposure, sensitivity, adaption, and capacity, as well as the prespecified preventative policies that should be addressed by the states, because that will moderate and modify the outcome. In these cases, does gender and age differences matter? Who is more sensitive to climate change? Who can adapt to climate change? Regarding gender and floods related deaths. The gender inequality could interact with the exposure differently. For instance, according to Watts et al. (2015), in high-income countries, flood-related deaths are more common in the male population, while in low-income countries, women and girls are disproportionately affected.
The question here: Is that true? According to UNHCR, (2014); WHO, (2019), almost half of all international migrants are women and girls. So, women and girls are more affected by disasters, especially in low-income countries. Nevertheless, women in low-income countries have fewer resources and power than men, they tend to emigrate. That means the women can’t tolerate the disasters in low-income countries. That’s why they will have one option to choose between. Either to choose death or emigration. In high-income countries the gender inequality is less, that’s why women can survive because women might have resources and power to survive during the disasters. For example, if the floods come and the women have a car, she can run with her children fast from the place. While in low-income countries when a woman has no car, she can’t run away from the floods. What is proving this example, is that it has been stated, that the risks will affect mostly poor and marginalized groups, as well as people with disabilities, elderly, and young children (Watts et al. 2015); (Watts, Amann, Ayeb-Karlsson, Belesova, Bouley, Boykoff, 2018); (UNHCR, 2014); (WHO, 2019).
According to Watts et al. (2015), there is no evidence that climate change has increased the risk of violence, civil conﬂict, or war between states. That could be justified for their wars and reasons for concern. But when the climate change leads to conflict, then the conflict will lead to emigration and health inequity, because when drought and water scarcity, land degradation and desertification occur, then that may lead to food scarcity and then to emigration, because people will search for new resources. People who couldn’t emigrate may start armed conflicts or long-term conflict, while that may increase the mental health problem, such as traumatic stress disorder, depression, and anxiety (Michael 2013); (Cunsolo & Ellis 2018).
According to WHO (2019), the increase in temperature and the change in rainfall patterns indicate an increased risk for borne diseases such as malaria, dengue fever, and Lyme disease. Usually, when such a disaster happens, people tend to run or emigrate from the region that has been infected. That because when transmission infection disease covers a region, that may affect the health status and limit mobility. These effects will lead also to many health effects for example when the temperature will rise, and the weather gets extreme and borne disease such as malaria occurred an x person emigrated from the infected region to another country. The X person will be an immigrant in x country, there he or she may be exposed to racism, stigma, and discrimination or exacerbates marginalization, disempowerment, or social exclusion. Then the immigrant x will have negative health effects and then it will be related to mortality and morbidity. (Grove & Zwi, 2006); (Viruell-Fuentes, Miranda, & Abdulrahim, 2012).
Furthermore, Watts et al. (2015), stated that when the sea level rises due to climate change. That can lead to regional changes and loss in biodiversity. That can threaten the population’s health through air pollution, disease, food insecurity, and displacement. Why sea level matter? Often, the coastal communities are suffering more from coastal flood risk, and usually, people tend to live with high density in coastal areas. For instance, in the United States, around 40 percent of the population lives in high population-density coastal areas and any coastal flood will threaten the population’s life and that may cause inboard or outboard migration. Lindsey (2019).
Not only the storms, floods, drought, and heat will affect global health, and global patterns of migration, but also the air emissions that cause pollution. According to CCAC. (2018). world health organization stated that around 90% of the world population breathes polluted air. Moreover, indoor and outdoor air pollution causes death to around 7 million people per year. Most of them are from low- and middle-income countries. If we considered well, then we would understand that the air emission is more dangerous for global health than only the effect of storms, floods, drought, and heat.
Demonstrating the second category of the air emissions that are lowering the local air quality. The air emissions are releasing many dangerous particulates, compounds, and gases such Sulphur Dioxide with formula (SO₂) and Ozone with formula (O3) as well as Nitrogen Dioxide with formula (NO2) and some particulates such as PM10 and PM2.5. Even some chemical compounds such Benzene with the formula (C₆H₆). The exposure to these, either outdoor air or indoor air may cause cardiorespiratory disease, acute respiratory infection, cardiovascular disease, lung cancer, stroke, and mental health problem (Watts et al. 2015); (National Pollutant Inventory, 2019).
This category of gases is very dangerous to human been. The awareness has already been in many agencies in different countries for example, in United States the environmental protection agency (2019) stated that (O3) can damage the lungs, cause chest pain, coughing, shortness of breath, inflammation of lung tissue, susceptibility to respiratory infection and throat irritation. Also, the agency for toxic substances and disease registry (2015) stated that the effect of Benzene is determined by the length of time of the exposure and by the amount. A study conducted on workers employed in industries, there they have been exposed to Benzene in workplace air for long term. The result indicated that the exposure to very high levels of benzene in air for 10 minutes can result to death. The exposure to lower levels of benzene in air for 10 minutes can result to drowsiness, dizziness, rapid heart rate, tremors, confusion, headaches, and unconsciousness. Even they stated that eating foods or drinking liquids containing high levels of Benzene can result to irritation of the stomach, vomiting, dizziness, convulsions, sleepiness, rapid heart rate, coma, and death. Moreover, if Benzene meet the eyes it may cause general irritation and damage to the cornea.
Benzene can cause many problems in the blood. For instance, People who breathe benzene for long periods may experience some harmful effects in the tissues that form blood cells. Mostly in the bone marrow and as a result that could disrupt the normal blood production and after that anemia may occur. Furthermore, the long-term exposure can cause Leukemia. Leukemia is a condition when the blood forming organs are defected by cancer. Even the excessive exposure may harm the immune system, which could increase the risk for infection and in most cases can lower the body’s defence against cancer. The exposure to Benzene can affect the fertility among women. the study has shown that women who were breathing high levels of Benzene had irregular menstrual periods. Also, Benzene affect the prenatal development such delaying the bone formation and damaging the bone marrow of the fetus which can result in low birthweight (Agency for toxic substances & disease registry, 2015).
Even the government in Australia has published on her website in the department of the environment and energy, that the national pollutant inventory (2019) stated that, the air emissions will be diffused by airborne particles. The air will carry particulate from Industry sources such as particulate matter PM10 and PM2.5. These particulates can be drawn deep into the lungs through nose or mouth. Recent epidemiological research suggests that there are many negative health effects from these particulates include: fibrosis, cancer, irritation of mucous membranes, toxic effects by absorption of the toxic material into the blood and increased respiratory symptoms, aggravation of asthma and premature death.
Finally, last but not least, the third category is also contributing to climate change. For instance, when the solid discharge such as radioactive materials and water, as well as ash and sulphur affect an area then, these will lead to local contamination which can have different negative health effects, such as acute radiation sickness, cancer, drowning, physical injury and mental health problem, which later also could lead to emigration (Watts et al. 2015).
Climate change, health and migration are related to each other and the relation depends on the intensity and the duration of the climate change. As well as the prespecified preventative policies and population vulnerability to the exposure. Climate change can be translated to many forms of risks and that will play a big role in forced displacement of people in the coming years. Furthermore, the displacement will have negative effects on health and could be a cause of borne disease and poverty. In order to lower the effects of climate change, these forms and hazards should be incorporated into health planning and policy measures, which must include deep cuts in greenhouse gas emissions, efforts to remove CO2 from the atmosphere, protection and enhancement of the biosphere.
The top ten list of healthy habits and eating practices. There are many people who will doubt to wake up tomorrow. How can you kill the doubt? Are you following bad eating habits and practices? Today we came up with a top 10 list of healthy habits and eating practice, that can give you more push and confidence that you will wake up tomorrow.
First, if you are obese, try to lose weight, get in shape. That can be achieved by eating healthier. Eat more fiber because a high fiber diet may help to lower your cholesterol levels, control blood sugars. You can get fiber through legumes, vegetables, fruits, and whole grains. The whole grains are great sources of fiber.
Eat enough vitamins, minerals, and phytochemicals (disease-fighting compounds).
That can be done by eating more fruits and vegetables. Grapes are the best example, grapes have many beneficial vitamins and minerals, as well as phytochemicals which are disease-fighting compounds.
Get adequate sleep.
Studies always show that individuals who get too little sleep are more likely to run at risk for weight gain, diabetes, high blood pressure, and even heart disease. Adults need at least 7-8 hours a night of sleep. Also, children need from 8-10.
Do not miss the breakfast
The body needs a specific number of calories a day. 24 hours is very little time to inject the body with all these calories. Divide your calories to more than four meals a day. That may help with weight loss and keeping a healthy stomach. People who skip breakfast usually end up replacing the calories later in the day.
Eat the foods that you love
The body is very smart, and genes usually control your choices. Build a good connection with your genes. That can be done through understanding the responses of the body to some sorts of food.
Do not overeat
Do not overeat and don’t completely deprive yourself, try always to find your limit and just stop before the limit. A study conducted on animals found that liking and overeating end up with negative effects, such as losing hair, muscles, and getting old quickly.
Check yourself always
That can be done through accessing health care centers from time to time, and by buying a big mirror which through it you can get feedback about the physical changes that occur to your body.
Enlist social support
Isolation and marginalization by society are the most dangerous causes of heart disease and diabetes. Studies have shown that people who live alone isolated, die at an early age, due to the oxidization of the body by stress and depression. Do not be haunted by yourself communication is a therapy for longevity.
Move your ass
Get moving, because exercise is the best therapy for longevity. Do not let the winter and the cold weather to hamper your efforts. Book an exercise class. So, you can get some sessions with a training plan.
Assist your nutritional status
Nutritional status is managed by balance food consumption and normal utilization of nutrients. Take contact with a health adviser in order to be sure that you are not making mistakes. Book now a session for assessment of your nutritional status with Alexander Astrakos.
12 ways to measure social competence?
First, the measurement of social competence should be at different time points in the life course and should including:
The quality of close friendships
The representation of self-description
Daily living skills
The cognitive dimension of self-representations in the context of peer relationships reflects individuals’ perceptions of their specific social competencies (e.g., “I am not very good at getting other kids to let me join in their games.”).
How to assess or measure health inequity?
Health inequity has been always ongoing debate. There are many aspects of health inequities. The most influential trigger on health regarding equities is social exclusion, marginalization, discrimination, and disadvantage. The excluded or marginalized groups are groups who have often suffered discrimination and who have been excluded or marginalized from society usually such groups do not have access to health-promoting resources and economically and socially disadvantaged. There are many aspects to measure health inequity. These aspects can be measured by different ways for instance by;
The indicators of wealth
The size of your social network
By the educational attainment
Displacement from ancestral lands
Denial of voting
Discriminatory practices in housing
By criminal justice
By the representation in high executive, political, and professional positions
Documented historical evidence of discrimination or slavery
Depression is dominating the northern part of Europe and the USA and the whole of Canada, in the winter. The seasonal affective disorder is a condition in which individuals experience recurrent depression during the fall/winter. In some places like in the United States, Canada, Norway, Finland, and Sweden, will observe daylight saving time. Shorter days, less sunlight, and darkness. Many kinds of research indicate that daylight saving time can increase the symptoms of seasonal depression for some people. Even more, the research has gone far away from depression to find the available evidence about the existence of an association between daylight saving time and an increase in the occurrence of acute myocardial infarction. According to Manfredini, et. al
Seasonal Depression Includes Symptoms Such as:
Feeling sad or depressed.
losing interest in things previously enjoyed.
People eat more carbohydrates in order to get more dopamine.
long sleep deprivation,
you may sleep only short intervals
Lacking motivation or feeling tired.
Feeling either restless or slowed down.
Feeling guilty due to the feeling that you deserve better options.
Some people have problems with making decisions or concentrating.
Some people who have no options will think about death or suicide.
Internal clock, and melatonin hormone
Our bodies are dominated by an internal clock, and melatonin hormone. When sunlight come, the light enters our eyes then it sends the message to our brains that it’s time to wake up and when it’s dark, a hormonal signal is sent to our brains that it’s time to sleep.
What Causes Seasonal Depression?
Circadian misalignment, environmental conditions and sleeping deprivation. Our body clock may become disrupted due to a lack of exposure to sunlight. According to Manfredini, et. al Circadian rhythm is “driven by either central or peripheral clocks. The central circadian clock (called ‘master clock’) is located within the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus and accounts for approximately 20,000 neurons”. Circadian clocks regulate our metabolism and organs, including the heart, skeletal muscle, liver, and adipose tissue. The central clock and the peripheral clocks influence numerous functions, including sleep/rest and endocrine activity as well as the metabolism, autonomic and sympathetic activity. All these can lead to the symptoms we know as seasonal depression.
Treatments For Seasonal Depression
There are Behavioral, medical and nutritional therapy as well as light therapy and psychotherapy. Behavioral therapy starts with involving people with social activities. There is also some medications but we will not make any promotion for any in this article, Even light therapy could help some people, but the most important is the nutritional diet, fore instance you should eat food rich in vitamin D3 or take vitamin D3 supplement. As well as there is a specific diet for that season.
Moreover, the Cardiovascular system has biological clocks too as well. In fact, biological clocks have been found in the heart, at the cardiomyocyte level but we will not extend to that in this article, so we don’t confuse you more. In our next article we will talk about the cardiomyocyte circadian clock and how all these clocks lead to an increase of occurrence of acute myocardial infarction and which diet you should eat during winter in order to avoid the myocardial infraction.
Stress! Stressful life events have been linked to heart disease, diabetes, cancers, stroke, fetal death during pregnancy, low birth weight in offspring, and major depression. Stress and stress management affect health. What did it look like in the past? What has changed? How does stress affect you? Where did stress come from? How to change this? This’s what our article about.
This article is a part of our Magazine social stratification and health inequality. Here we will teach you a part of the best diet to reduce the stress and how socioeconomic status during the life course affects your health. We will also argue about the theories that have been used in this discipline in order to determine the causes of stress and diseases. Moreover, how social stratification and health inequality lead to stress and diseases.
Where stress comes from and what it does to your body?
Not only the poor people who have stress but also rich people. Everybody is susceptible to stress and diseases. So being poor is not the only reason for stress and diseases. Stress is a response to a mental and physical reaction. Stress be a physical reaction due to hormones included in such as cortisol, adrenaline, and norepinephrine, all those hormones increase breathing and pulse and increase blood flow in the muscles. These symptoms interact directly with the brain function, from the material substances and from the stored information during the life course. Short-term stress can be positive sometimes, such as being stressed to catch the bus and it can have negative effects on health if it becomes long-lasting.
How do you know if you have stress?
You become easily annoyed and impatient about small things
You will feel stiff, tense and your body aches
You will feel abandoned and tired, and therefore you will avoid the social contacts
You will lose your desire for sex and may lose erection
You get infections easier and more often
You feel that time is not enough and therefore you increase the tempo further
You opt out of rest, leisure activities, entertainment and contact with family and friends due to lack of time
A mother more often experiences their child as irksome and that can give negative feelings towards the infant or child.
You get stomach aches, tension headaches or palpitations
You feel it harder to breathe properly
The heartbeat becomes irregular
Heartbeat may be hard to detect
Today, young people are feeling worse than before. Today, teens suffer from psychosomatic disorders. Today, stress is twice as great. Today we have more stress than before due to globalization. Today, everything must be quickly and accurately. Today stress is rising due to the use of the Internet, especially due to social media, such as Instagram and Facebook. Teens start to compare their Capabilities or themselves with others which in some cases can lead to stress and depression. And even suicide. The most causative for stress and disease is the inequalities, especially health inequalities.
Stress in the past
To compare with 1985, where 57% of teenage girls suffer from psychosomatic disorders. In addition, this curve rises proportionally, and there is no specific reason why the stress is rising, but some studies show that it has and does to do mostly with unemployment. Some other studies show that socioeconomic status (SES) is the most causative for stress and diseases. Let’s discover what the science knows about the exposers and the outcomes related to health inequalities.
Both the theory of social conditions as fundamental causes of disease and the theory of education learned effectiveness and health may be used to explain health inequalities. We will also first describe the two theories, and then we will compare and contrast them. Second, discuss the strengths and limitations of each of these theories.
The theory of social conditions as fundamental causes of disease
Link and Phelan (1995, pp. 80, 87) emphasis on individually-based risk factors, because there are two concepts, the first one is the social factors or social condition such as socioeconomic status (SES) and social support are fundamental causes of disease. The second is contextualizing of the risk factors by understanding what put people at risk of the risks and how people come to be exposed to the individually-based risk factor. The theory strives to contextualize risk factors because they think that the efforts to reduce the risk by changing behavior will be ineffective if there is no clear understanding of the process that leads to exposure.
Advantage with the theory “social conditions as fundamental causes of disease”
The socioeconomic status associated with the disease despite changes in intervening mechanisms, because they involve access to resources such as money, knowledge, power, prestige, social support, and social network. All that can be used to avoid risks or to minimize the consequences of the disease once it occurs. SES and social networks are used by medical sociologists and social epidemiologists as potential fundamental causes (Link & Phelan, P. 87).
Theory that can take in the account variables such as race, ethnicity and gender are advantaged because that are critical issues because they are so closely tied to resources like money, power, prestige, and/or social (Link & Phelan, P. 87).
Socioeconomic resources like money, knowledge, power, and social connectedness are health related because those who command the most resources are best in avoiding the risks and the consequences of the disease. That can strengthen the theory clamed (Link & Phelan, P. 87).
Because social and economic resources can be used in different situations and ways, dynamically the fundamental social causes have effects on disease even when the profile of risk factors changes radically (Link & Phelan, P. 88).
The fundamental social causes cannot be explained by the same risk factors at any given time (Link & Phelan, P. 88).
The disadvantage with the theory “social conditions as fundamental causes of disease”
Focusing on the causal chain that takes only the individually-based risk factors would lead us to actions that could limit our ability to improve the nation’s health. If no new diseases emerged then no new risks will be developed which means no new knowledge about risks emerged. Even no new treatments will be developed (Link & Phelan, pp. 87-90).
What puts people at risk of the risks before it may not be the same today (Link & Phelan, P. 87).
The fundamental social causes cannot be fully understood just by tracing the mechanisms that appear to link them to disease, that’s why we need to focus on mechanisms because multiple mechanisms maybe contribute to a persistent association between the cause and the effect. (Link & Phelan, pp. 87, 88).
“As a result, investigations of the relationship of such social factors to specific manifestations of the disease are of limited utility. Since only one manifestation of the social cause is measured in such studies, the full impact of the social cause goes unrecorded” (Link & Phelan, P. 88).
The theory of “education, learned effectiveness and health”
This theory sees education as the fundamental element of the socioeconomic status linking it to health and it is more important than income, wealth and occupation. Education is a bridge between one generation and the next, education makes the individuals better at identifying, avoiding risky situations or habits and develops the learned effectiveness. It is cumulative and educated people will be quicker to exit the risky situations or correct the risky ways, and they will be able to manage or minimize the health problems that occur under life course “Education develops the capacity to find out what needs to be done and how to do it and develops habits and skills of self-direction” (Mirowsky and Ross, 2005, pp. 205-206).
Education is acquired first over the life course and contributes to many socioeconomic indicators for example contribute to the occupational class position and through that to income. Moreover induced the income. (Lahelma, Martikainen, Laaksonen, & Aittomäki, 2003, P. 327).
Education is important for health when the access to material resources is limited (Östergren 2018, p. 122). Because education is directly protective (Deaton 2018, p. 21).
Educational systems are not internationally uniformed (Elo 2009, p. 556).
Education is hard to achieve without support and it is associated with income, which means cost money, education and income interact as predictors of mortality (Östergren 2018, p. 122).
Tabell.1 Comparation and contrast
|Link and Phelan’s theory||Mirowsky and Ross’s theory|
|Conducted by medical sociologists and social epidemiologists||Conducted by Sociologists.
|Emphasis on individually-based risk factors||Emphasis on education|
|Conducted 1995||Conducted 2005|
|Limited to individually-based risk factors||Preventative for most aspects|
|Focusing on the causes of disease||Focusing on the SES linking to health|
We have also, several measures of socioeconomic status which are associated with health and mortality. Contact us to purchase the product, there we will discuss the advantages and disadvantages of different measures of socioeconomic status (education, occupation-based indicators, income, and wealth) in health inequality research. We will argue also that it is plausible that different measures affect the health and the mortality through different pathways. Also, how that may affect the health of women and men from a gender perspective. As well as we will describe how inequality are responsible for greater stress, anxiety and mental health disease. Moreover, we will focus on the topic how to reduce stress physically and mentally and the interaction between physical and mental health.
Clougherty. J, E., Souza. K., & Cullen. M, R. (2010) Work and its role in shaping the social gradient in health. New York Academy of Sciences. pp. 102-124. doi: 10.1111/j.1749-6632.2009.05338.x.
Elo. E (2009) Social Class Differentials in Health and Mortality: Patterns and Explanations in Comparative Perspective. Department of Sociology, Population Studies Center, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, Volume (35), pp. 553-572.
Hammarström. A., Johansson. K., Annandale. E., Ahlgren. C., Aléx. L., Christianson. M., Elwér. S., Eriksson. C., Fjellman,W. A., Gilenstam. K., Gustafsson. p, E., Harryson. L., Lehti. A., Stenberg. G., & Verdonk. P. (2013) Central gender theoretical concepts in health research: the state of the art Community Health. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health. volume (68)185-190. doi:10.1 136/jech-201 3-202572.
Lahelma. E., Martikainen. P., Laaksonen. M., & Aittomäki. A. (2003) Pathways between socioeconomic determinants of health. J Epidemiol Community Health, Volume (58), pp. 327–332. doi: 10.1136/jech.2003.011148.
Link. B & Phelan. J. (1995) Social Conditions as Fundamental Causes of Disease. Journal of Health and Social Behavio, Volume (Extra Issu) pp. 80-94.
Mirowsky. J & Ross. C, R. (2005) Education, learned effectiveness and health. London Review of Education. Volume (3,) pp. 205-22.
Östergren. O (2018) Educational inequalities in mortality are larger at low levels of income: A register-based study on premature mortality among 2.3 million Swedes, 2006–2009. Department of Public Health Sciences, Stockholm University. pp 122-128.
How to identify whether the child has a mental health concern
Screening is a very common preventive strategy in child public health. There are many aspects of a child’s health problems that make them suitable for a screening strategy before they develop any trauma later in life. For instance, bullying and social acceptance can be a child’s health problem and can be screened to assess psychological well-being. Children can experience social withdrawal, anxiety, and depression as a result of bullying. Also, such as early childhood caries is a child health problem that fits this description and can be screened to assess physical well-being.
Mental Health Among Children
Moreover, the lack of vocabulary or developmental ability to explain their concerns. As well as the child’s oral hygiene can affect social acceptance. Even social phobia and generalized anxiety disorder and Autism spectrum disorder (ASD). These can be easily screened. Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) appears in early childhood and it affects a child’s ability to communicate and interact with others. Also, attention-deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) were usually the children show hyperactivity and impulsive behavior and often have difficulty paying attention. There is also Schizophrenia, this is a chronic mental illness that causes a child to lose touch with reality.
Mental Health and Socioeconomic Status
Mental health can be also assessed by: socioeconomic status, family characteristics, maternal level of education, family social class and characteristics, health variables, limitation of activities and so on.
Family Responsibility for Child Health
The responsibility first rests with the family to identify these signs. If you doubt that your child is carrying or developing some of these signs, then you should take direct consideration and try to access the health care center. Here you can read these articles that may help more.