Physical Activities Can Boost Your Immunity to Fight Coronavirus

Health, Sport guide, Sport facts, Physical Activities Can Boost Your Immunity to Fight Coronaviru

Physical activities are not only essential for overall health, but also for boosting the immunity to fight Coronavirus. Your immune system protects you from viruses, bacteria, and parasites. In order to boost your immunity, you should boost your physical fitness. White blood cells can be completely dormant without physical activity. Therefore, exercise enhances their movements by increasing blood flow from and to the full body. So that it can help the white blood cells to perform monitoring, research, and destruction tasks in all parts of the body.


Physically activities should be every day. We recommend outdoor activities. For at least 150 minutes a week of moderate aerobic exercise. Such as hiking, slow juggling, and cycling. That can be also combined with 20 minutes of vigorous activities such as running, fast swimming, or weightlifting.


Furthermore, exercising and eating well will have a potential effect on helping you sleep better. Which is a bonus, because the tired body is more susceptible to germs. In fact, a study last year found that lack of sleep impaired the ability of a type of lymphocyte called T cell to fight disease.


Health, Health Guide, Physiology Topics, Corona Virus Symptoms, and How it Works

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Childhood Obesity Prevention Strategies +37

Health, Health Guide, Nutrition

Obesity Prevention Strategies presented by Astrakos’ society for public health, in this episode, we will teach you the childhood obesity prevention strategies, and how to secure your family from obesity, and what are the main factors that lead to it.

Usually, the pathway of life course effected often, by many involved factors, such as society, neighborhood, family, the individual, area, the cellular levels, the physiological and psychological aspect, as well as, the social exposures.


Recently life course epidemiologists explain how a father’s social class, in childhood, may affect the biological functions and the development of the adults. That means we must be careful about our children and understand that the bad social exposures, can affect negatively the health of our children, especially in puberty.

According to the world health organization, Everybody, less than 18 years of age, has the right of the child and considered as a child. That was adopted by the convention on the rights of the Child.


Childhood is the primary stage of life. What we eat, and do in childhood, has a big effect on adulthood life. Obesity is not only caused by food, but also by social aspects. Obesity rates have increased dramatically over the world in the last 30 years, the World Health Organization is raising the awareness about overweight, and obesity. Due to the increased number of obesity among children. In 2016, an estimated 42 million children under the age of 5, were overweight, or obese. Almost three-quarters of these, live in Asia and Africa. Overweight and obesity in early childhood, increase the risk for social discrimination, sleep apnea, high cholesterol, high blood pressure, type 2 diabetes, and obesity later in life.


Astrakos report is presenting a comprehensive and integrated package, of recommendations, to guide families to address childhood obesity. To create, healthy eating practices, and habits, to prevent obesity among children worldwide. Here we will summarize some key of actions, that are directed to the parents.

Childhood Obesity Prevention Strategies

Parents should promote the intake of healthy foods, which is rich in unsaturated fats, and omega 3, also food should be free from sugars or salt. Parents should also, reduce the intake of unhealthy foods at home.


The unhealthy foods are the foods, which are high in saturated fatty acids, trans- fats, and sugar-sweetened beverages, as well as the energy-dense foods, which have lots of calories per serving. The calories may come from protein, fat, or carbohydrates.


Inform your child, about childhood overweight and obesity, and tell l them about, the consequences of that on health and well-being.


Increase access to healthy foods at home.


Update your health information always, to get an effective prevention guide, of childhood obesity through the consumption of a healthy diet throughout the life course.


Ensure that nutrition information and guidelines for adolescents and children are delivered to adolescents and children in a simple, understandable, and, accessible manner.


Reduce the exposure of children and adolescents, to the power of the marketing of unhealthy foods.


Control the OBESOGENIC ENVIRONMENT, which promotes high energy intake, and sedentary behavior. This includes the foods, that are available, affordable, accessible, and promoted.


Control the physical activity opportunities, and the social norms, concerning food, and physical activity


Develop nutrient profiles, to identify unhealthy foods and beverages


Guide caregivers, on appropriate nutrition, diet, and portion size.


Implement comprehensive programs, that promote physical activity, and reduce sedentary behaviors in children and adolescents


Promote healthy lifestyles, for young children through promoting physical activity, because physical activity, is known to reduce the risk of diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and cancers.


Improve children’s ability to learn their mental health, and well-being. Childhood experience can influence lifelong by physical activity behaviors.


Promote the benefits of physical activity.


Provide guidance to children and adolescents, on healthy body size, physical activity, sleep behaviors, and appropriate use of screen-based entertainment.


Pregnancy is a very critical pathway for child obesity. The risk of obesity can be passed from one generation to the next, because, maternal health, can influence fetal development, and the risk of a child becoming obese.


The care, that women receive before during, and after pregnancy, has profound implications for the later health, and development of their children.


Diagnose and manage hyperglycemia, and gestational hypertension.


Promote a varied diet with all macro and micronutrients.


Promote plant-based foods such as vegetables, fruit, potatoes, whole grain products.


Ensure that diet and nutrition counseling is included in antenatal care.


Avoid the use of and exposure to tobacco, alcohol, drugs, and other toxins.


Provide guidance on and support for, healthy diet, sleep, and physical activity, in early childhood, to ensure that children grow appropriately, and develop healthy habits.


Including the breastfeeding, for the first six months of life, because breastfeeding is the core for optimizing infant development.


Work on early detection, and management of obesity and its associated complications.


Address health nutrition for weight management


Give psychosocial support. The mental health needs of children who are overweight or obese are crucial, including issues of stigmatization and bullying, need to be given special attention.


Obesity can be increased by, the physical environment, such as proximity to grocery stores, vending machines, and access to school food and drink.


Share with your child the foods that contribute to healthy diets, if it is not consumed in appropriate amounts.


Use social media to provide guidance on and support for a healthy diet. Studies have been shown that social media is a perfect way to influence your child.


As a caregiver, be the con-founder that affects the association, not the mediator.


Consider that adolescents will tend to eat the foods, that are available, affordable, accessible, and promoted.


Parents could affect the adolescents’ food choices by the same tools, that have been applied to the adolescents, which is social media.


Obesity leads to bullying, and harassment, oppositional defiant disorder and, conduct disorder.


Improve the availability of mechanisms for purchasing foods from farms.


Plan a physical education at least two times a week.


Improve access to outdoor activity.


Stay in touch with the healthcare center.


This was a presentation of the 37 key of actions, of Astrakos alexanders’ report, after reading all these keys, we on astrakos’ society we confirm that motivation is not enough, moving from motivation to actions could help much more. Also, we focus on parents, because parental values could affect the home environment, Parental values stand for the identity, that parents are caring, which usually impacted by personal thoughts and feeling. Furthermore, the perception that family receive from the public sources, selective services and education which include all, such as, internet, books, magazine, TV, and advertisement, as well as when parents, grandparents or friends undermine their rules over the children’s eating

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Calculation of The Basal Metabolic Rate

Health, Sport guide, basal metabolic rate for health

Basal Metabolic Rate is the number of calories required to keep your body functioning. It is known also as Metabolism, there are many factors that affect the calculation of the BMR or metabolism. Such factors are Body Composition / body size, gender, age, ambient temperature, starvation, health condition, and hormones.

Body Composition / Body size is affecting the BMR because body composition: has to do with the fat tissue and muscles as well as water amount in the body. For instance, fat tissue has a lower metabolic activity than muscle tissue. Furthermore, as lean muscle mass increases, metabolic rate increases. Also, metabolic rate increases as weight, height, and surface area increase.

Gender affects the BMR, because, the basal metabolic rate (BMR) among women is lower with 5 to 10 percent than in men. This is because women usually possess more body fat tissue and less muscle mass than men of similar size.

Age affects the BMR, because: Insofar as we get older especially after the age of 30 the lean muscles decrease which can result in declining with 0 3 percent per year in BMR.

Ambient temperature affects the BMR: Climate and body temperature also play role in the metabolism, for instance, the BMR of people who live in tropical climates is generally 5 to 20 % higher than those who live in hot climate areas, because the coldness takes energy from the body. The bodywork against the coldness in order to keep the body warm.

Starvation affects the BMR because starvation lowers the BMR.

Health condition affects the BMR: For instance, fever, illness, or injury may increase the resting metabolic rate.

Hormones: Hormones are also affecting the BMR, (adrenalin) and (noradrenaline). Also, hormonal levels of the Thyroxine (T4), which released by the thyroid glands. This hormone has a significant effect on metabolic rate.


An example of calculating BMR using the metric system for the formula:

  • Gender = Male

  • Age = 40 years

  • Height = 185 cm

  • Weight = 75 kg

  • Now i apply the information to the formula.

BMR = (88.3 + (13.4 x 75) + (4.8 x 185) – (5.7 x 40))

BMR = 1 Calories / 24 hours

Now, i can multiply the BMR by the activity factor (x1.375) to calculate the calories that i need to maintain my weight:

Calories needed to maintain my weight = 1 x 1.375 = 2410 calories.



Typical values of Physical Activity Level (PAL)

The following examples give an indication of the range of values of PAL.

Daily Activities
Lifestyle (could be described as)
Less than 1.4
Hospital patient with limited physical mobility
1.4 – 1.65
Little (if any) physical activity at work or in leisure time, e.g. typical UK or USA office worker – male or female
Moderate physical activity at work or leisure – female
Moderately Active
Moderate physical activity at work or leisure – male
Moderately Active
1.7 – 2.0
Moderate physical activity at work, e.g. in construction, or some jobs in agriculture or the leisure industry.
Alternatively, office workers who work-out e.g. in gym for an hour per day.
Moderately Active
2.0 – 2.4
Considerable physical activity at work, e.g. some military or outdoor occupations or energetic jobs in the leisure industry – such as fitness trainers who run alongside clients. Alternatively, office workers who take at least moderate exercise for two or more hours/day.
Very Active
More than 2.4
Professional athlete or sports person e.g. football player
Extremely Active




Good to know these also for later calculation.

Units of energy

  • 1 kilo Joule (kJ) = 0.24 kilocalories (kcal)

  • 1 kcal = 4.17 kJ

  • 1000 kJ = 1 Mega Joule (MJ)

So much energy gives 1g of each energy sensor:

  • Protein = 17 kJ eller 4 kcal

  • Carbohydrate = 17 kJ eller 4 kcal

  • Fat = 37 kJ eller 9 kcal

  • Alcohol = 29 kJ eller 7 kcal



Work done = force x distance (W= F xs)

Power = Work done/time ( P=W/t)  where P is power, W is work, and t is time.


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You doubt to wake up tomorrow? Kill the Doubt with Our Healthy Habits

Health, Sport guide, Healthy habits and longevity, psychology, social science
1. Healthy Habits and Eating Practices - Public Health     

The top ten list of healthy habits and eating practices. There are many people who will doubt to wake up tomorrow. How can you kill the doubt? Are you following bad eating habits and practices? Today we came up with a top 10 list of healthy habits and eating practice, that can give you more push and confidence that you will wake up tomorrow. 


Lose weight

First, if you are obese, try to lose weight, get in shape. That can be achieved by eating healthier. Eat more fiber because a high fiber diet may help to lower your cholesterol levels, control blood sugars. You can get fiber through legumes, vegetables, fruits, and whole grains. The whole grains are great sources of fiber.

Eat enough vitamins, minerals, and phytochemicals (disease-fighting compounds).

That can be done by eating more fruits and vegetables. Grapes are the best example, grapes have many beneficial vitamins and minerals, as well as phytochemicals which are disease-fighting compounds.

Get adequate sleep.

Studies always show that individuals who get too little sleep are more likely to run at risk for weight gain, diabetes, high blood pressure, and even heart disease. Adults need at least 7-8 hours a night of sleep. Also, children need from 8-10.


Woman Sleeping or dead

Are you doubt to wake up tomorrow

Do not miss the breakfast

The body needs a specific number of calories a day. 24 hours is very little time to inject the body with all these calories. Divide your calories to more than four meals a day. That may help with weight loss and keeping a healthy stomach. People who skip breakfast usually end up replacing the calories later in the day.

Eat the foods that you love 

The body is very smart, and genes usually control your choices. Build a good connection with your genes. That can be done through understanding the responses of the body to some sorts of food.

Do not overeat 

Do not overeat and don’t completely deprive yourself, try always to find your limit and just stop before the limit. A study conducted on animals found that liking and overeating end up with negative effects, such as losing hair, muscles, and getting old quickly.

Overeating and longevity

Overeating and Longevity


Check yourself always

That can be done through accessing health care centers from time to time, and by buying a big mirror which through it you can get feedback about the physical changes that occur to your body.

Enlist social support

Isolation and marginalization by society are the most dangerous causes of heart disease and diabetes. Studies have shown that people who live alone isolated, die at an early age, due to the oxidization of the body by stress and depression. Do not be haunted by yourself communication is a therapy for longevity.

social isolation

Social Isolation

Move your ass

Get moving, because exercise is the best therapy for longevity. Do not let the winter and the cold weather to hamper your efforts. Book an exercise class. So, you can get some sessions with a training plan.

Assist your nutritional status

Nutritional status is managed by balance food consumption and normal utilization of nutrients. Take contact with a health adviser in order to be sure that you are not making mistakes. Book now a session for assessment of your nutritional status with Alexander Astrakos.


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How Children and Youth Get Injured?

Injuries among children and youth, psychology, social science

Child mortality due to accidental injuries has been dropped sharply down since the last decades. In North Europe, small children usually get injured in the home. Whereas schoolchildren get injured during athletics or sports activities. Teenagers get injured on bicycles and mopeds. Even deaths among children from traffic accidents have fallen down but the risk of being injured in an accident varies across regions and social groups.

For instance, children who grow up in sparsely populated areas are often hospitalized as a result of poisoning. Also, the youth are more likely to be injured in traffic in this area. As well as, the children and young people who live in households with low socioeconomic status (SES), have a higher risk of being injured in traffic or by violence. Furthermore, moped injuries and automobile injuries could be prevented if the risk for children living with Low SES could be reduced to the same level as for children living in high SES.


Related Post


Diseases and injuries at the Gyms

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The Best Pre Workout Meal

Sport Science Laboratory

Food rich in Polyphenols are the best pre workout meal

In the fitness industry, athletes use pre-workout food or supplement and there is a question which puzzles the athletes and the researchers over the last decade, what is the best pre-workout supplement. During exercise, the body breaks down the muscles tissue and build free radical which can damage the cells. So, any supplement that can stop this process will be recommended as a pre-workout supplement. According to Gago et al. (2007, p. 1234); Rocha et al. (2009, p. 46) Polyphenols play an antioxidant role through interacting with oxidant radicals by preventing oxidative reactions and promoting nitric oxide NO formation from nitrite. 

What do athletes use before a workout?

Usually, athletes use an ergogenic substance such as arginine and citrulline, to increase the nitric oxide pathway and prevent physiological hypoxia, because under workout when the body lifts weights, skeletal muscles need more oxygen. The good thing here is that there are natural sources that can help us to increase the nitric pathway such as fruit or vegetables that are rich in Polyphenols. A study conducted by Labonté et al. (2013, p. 56) examined how intake of polyphenols modifies brachial artery flow-mediated dilation FMD on eight elite male and female athletes on cycling anaerobic performance and they found that polyphenol-rich drink led to a significant increase in FMD. Moreover, restricted blood flow is a key limiting factor in muscle oxygenation during high-intensity efforts.


The effects of grapes on blood pressure, heart rate and peak power

According to Barona et al. (2012, pp. 1626-1630) Polyphenols, found in fruits and vegetables, such as Grapes. Polyphenols have positive biological activities, such as antioxidative, anti-inflammatory effect by decreasing circulating inflammatory molecules, and hypolipidemic effects which mean any supplement which reduces the concentration of lipid in the blood serum. Also, can be beneficial for people with metabolic syndrome by lowering Both systolic and diastolic blood presser (BP) and increasing brachial artery flow-mediated vasodilation FMD response, which even can decrease the risk of cardiovascular disease CVD. Moreover, food rich in Polyphenols enhance the endothelial vasoprotective mechanisms by inducing the formation of NO and reducing the oxidative stress in the arterial wall. According to Labonté et al. (2013, p. 56) “oxidative stress may hamper sports performance, induce fatigue, and delay recovery”.

Grapes ingredients 

Grapes contain numerous polyphenols components, which make the grapes one of the best choices for pre-workout meals. The phytochemicals amount in the freeze-dried grape, mg/100 g there are Flavans 410, Anthocyanins 77, Flavonols which include (Quercetin 3.8, Myricetin 0.255, Kaempferol 0.315), Stilbenes (resveratrol) 0.16. Grape consumption will support the body with 1587 kJ/100g of energy inclusive Macronutrients g/100 such as 91.5 of carbohydrate, 3.9 g of protein and 0.6 g of total fat. Also, with Micronutrients mg/100 such as β-Carotene 0.11, Vitamin C 5.2, Calcium 57, Iron 1.36, Sodium 18.1, Potassium 1050, Thiamin 0.21, Pyridoxine 0.25, Folic acid 0.034, Phosphorus 120, Magnesium 36.5, Zinc 0.299, Copper 0.250, Manganese 0.382 (Barona et al. 2012, p. 1627).

Last but not least Rollea (2012, p. 108) mentioned that the blue dehydrated grape has higher values of glucose than the green and gold grape. Also, with high ratios of Glucose (Glucose/fructose).

Grape Varieties

Grape Varieties

Grapes, seedless, cooked or canned, NS as to sweetened or unsweetened; sweetened, NS as to type of sweetener (USDA)

Serving Size 100 g

Name Amount Unit
Water 79.5 g
Energy 76 kcal
Protein 0.48 g
Total lipid (fat) 0.1 g
Carbohydrate, by difference 19.6 g
Fiber, total dietary 0.6 g
Sugars, total including NLEA 19 g
Calcium, Ca 10 mg
Iron, Fe 0.94 mg
Magnesium, Mg 6 mg
Phosphorus, P 17 mg
Potassium, K 103 mg
Sodium, Na 5 mg
Zinc, Zn 0.05 mg
Copper, Cu 0.054 mg
Selenium, Se 0.1 µg
Vitamin C, total ascorbic acid 1 mg
Thiamin 0.03 mg
Riboflavin 0.022 mg
Niacin 0.125 mg
Vitamin B-6 0.065 mg
Folate, total 3 µg
Folic acid 0 µg
Folate, food 3 µg
Folate, DFE 3 µg
Choline, total 3.8 mg
Vitamin B-12 0 µg
Vitamin B-12, added 0 µg
Vitamin A, RAE 3 µg
Retinol 0 µg
Carotene, beta 38 µg
Carotene, alpha 1 µg
Cryptoxanthin, beta 0 µg
Lycopene 0 µg
Lutein + zeaxanthin 48 µg
Vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol) 0.13 mg
Vitamin E, added 0 mg
Vitamin D (D2 + D3) 0 µg
Vitamin K (phylloquinone) 9.8 µg
Fatty acids, total saturated 0.033 g
4:0 0 g
6:0 0 g
8:0 0 g
10:0 0 g
12:0 0 g
14:0 0.001 g
16:0 0.029 g
18:0 0.004 g
Fatty acids, total monounsaturated 0.004 g
16:1 0 g
18:1 0.004 g
20:1 0 g
22:1 0 g
Fatty acids, total polyunsaturated 0.03 g
18:2 0.023 g
18:3 0.007 g
18:4 0 g
20:4 0 g
20:5 n-3 (EPA) 0 g
22:5 n-3 (DPA) 0 g
22:6 n-3 (DHA) 0 g
Cholesterol 0 mg
Alcohol, ethyl 0 g
Caffeine 0 mg
Theobromine 0 mg
Pyridoxine 0.25  mg
Flavans 410  mg
Quercetin 3.8  mg
Myricetin 0.255  mg
Resveratrol 0.16 mg
Kaempferol 0.315 mg







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An overview of biomechanics in sport

Arm Wrestling test

Biomechanics and its function in sports. Biomechanics is used for three different kinds of tasks: performance, injury, and rehabilitation. We’re going to focus on performance in this article and going through the foundation of biomechanics. In biomechanics, there are two units that are commonly used, Watt and Newton. You can, for example, use Watt when you measure power output and Newton is used to measuring force output.

To calculate Power output you need to divide the “work (W)” done with the “time (T)” it took (W / T = Power output). and to calculate “Force output” you need to multiply “mass (M)” with “acceleration (A)” (A x M = Force output).

Power output is often used to measure endurance where the focus is to keep performing at the same resistance during a long time, for example, bicycle, rowing, and so on. Meanwhile, force output is often used in explosive sports were the focus is at maximal performance during a short amount of time, for example, powerlifting, martial arts, and so on. The equipment used for measuring performance in sports differs within each sport and purpose:

  • A Soccer club in Spain used GPS-sensor attach to each soccer-player to measure distance and speed/acceleration during the training session. This information was aiding the coach to discover over-training and each players strengths and weaknesses.
  • Accelerometers track both movement and vibrations and can, therefore, be used in most sports. Accelerometers can be used in boxing to measure power output and previewed the boxer or the coach with information on the boxer’s physical condition.
  • The piezoceramic (in short “piezo”) sensor is a sensor that measures pressure and commonly used in force plate in the laboratory to measure forces produce by jumps, countermovement jumps are a typical test and loved by the scientist. The piezo sensor is very small and doesn’t weigh much and can easily be attached to other objects.
  • The dynamometer was first used in the aircraft industry to security checking the wires and works direct opposite the piezoceramic sensor. Instead of measuring a pushing force, it measures a pulling force. I have used a dynamometer attach to wire in my own research to measure maximal force output from arm-wrestlers.

Written by Robin Kadergran a professional in biomechanics.


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Overview about Arm-Wrestling

Overview about Arm-wrestling

Arm-wrestling is a challenge for two people and it requires strength, technic, swiftness, a quick reaction, and tactics for mastering the sport. The sport requires static strength, for locking the arm in position and later pulling the opponent’s arm down. The origins of the sport start way before Christ and proof could be found in historical empires such as the Egyptian, Greek, and Roman empire. The proof comes in the shape of paintings and writings. The sport was used to measure the strength and showing off a person’s ego (Confederação Brasileira de Luta de Braço, 2017).

Nowadays arm-wrestling competitions are much more planned and organized such as the world arm-wrestling federation (WAF) who decides the standard and rules within arm-wrestling and the world arm-wrestling League (WAL) is a tournament for professional arm wrestlers having emerged from Canada. To participate in WAL, the competitor must have come to the age of 18 years old and the rules do not defer to the amateur’s class or professional athletes. The first general rule in arm wrestling is that the participants have 60 seconds to approach the wrestling table. The second rule is that the participants are not allowed to wear anything covering the arm (wrists and elbows). The third rule is that if the participants consume any alcohol or drugs, they’ll be disqualified. If anyone violates the rules above they’ll be disqualified (World Armwrestling League, 2017).

According to the team classification published by WAF: Russia, is the world leader in arm-wrestling followed by Kazakstan, Ukraine, Turkey, Georgia, and Sweden with the rank of number six. Russia has won 35 gold, 28 silvers, and 26 bronze medals and compared to Sweden that has six gold, 11 silvers, and two bronzes medal (World Armwrestling Federation, 2017). Even though Sweden is in the top ten countries within the arm wrestling community, professional athletes cannot manage to make a living out of the sport and even they have to pay traveling, hotels, and competition fees themselves (Dalarnas Tidningar, 2010). 




Elfstedt, F. (2010) Visar musklerna i VM i armbrytning. Dalarnas Tidningar, 4 December. (2017-11-24)

World Armwrestling Federation (2017) WORLD ARMWRESTLING CHAMPIONSHIP. OFFICIAL RESULTS. (2017-12-06)

World Armwrestling League (2017) Rules. (2017-12-06)

Boaro SN, Vitti M. (2017) Estudo eletromiográfico do músculo bíceps braquial. Revista Brasileira de Ciências Morfológicas 1993/10/8. P. 4–7. (2017-11-14)

World Armwrestling League (2017) Rules. (2017-12-06)



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Human Growth Hormone Roles and The Right Dose

Human Growth Hormone

Human growth hormone (HGH)

Human growth hormone (HGH) plays a crucial role and is an essential hormone for the growth of bones and muscle development. Besides, it has important regulatory effects on carbohydrate, protein, and lipid metabolism at all stages of life. HGH is secreted by the anterior pituitary gland and travels through the blood to stimulates the liver to produce a protein Calles insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1). Before 1985 the hormone was obtained from cadaver pituitary extracts, and the supply was limited and expensive.


The seven normal functions of growth hormone that attracted the interest of some coaches and athletes: 

  1. Stimulation of protein and nucleic acid synthesis in skeletal muscle.

  2. Stimulation of bone growth (elongation) if bones are not yet fused.

  3. Stimulation of insulin-like growth factor.

  4. Increase in lipolysis leading to an increase in free fatty acids and an overall decrease in body fat.

  5. Increase in blood glucose levels because the body uses the fat, not glucose.

  6. Enhancement of healing after musculoskeletal injuries.

  7. Increase in collagen synthesis.


Does measurement of the random serum levels of HGH useful?

Growth hormone is produced in bursts and its levels quickly fall, but IGF-1 levels reflect the overall daily production of growth hormone. For all these reasons, interpreting the results of blood tests for pituitary hormones is complex. GH secretion from the pituitary gland is dependent on the sleep-wake cycle and, therefore, measurement of random serum levels of GH is not clinically useful.


According to Reh. C and Geffner. M (2010) HGH binds to its receptor on targeting cells in the liver and cartilage, leading to the production of IGF-1, which through endocrine and paracrine/ autocrine mechanisms, then stimulates bone growth. HGH acts at the epiphysis (growth plate) to increase linear growth by promoting differentiation of prechondrocytes and the expansion of osteoblasts.



Human Growth Hormone Treat Obesity

Human Growth Hormone Treats Obesity


Exercise and mobilization of body fat

HGH is one of the many factors that are responsible for increasing fatty acid mobilization. HGH increases sharply with exercise and remain elevated for up to several hours in the recovery period. Adipose tissue is more sensitive to either the sympathetic nervous system or the increasing level of the circulating Catecholamines.



The adrenal glands make large amounts of catecholamines as a reaction to stress. The main catecholamines are epinephrine (adrenaline), norepinephrine (noradrenaline), and dopamine. They break down into Vanillylmandelic acid (VMA), Metanephrine, and Normetanephrine. Catecholamines can serve as neurotransmitters, transferring signals from neuron to neuron, as well as hormones, which regulate physiological functions such as your heartbeat and breathing rate. Even mobilization accrues in response to a specific fat-mobilization substance that is responsive to elevated levels of activity, that’s why we can’t state with certainty which factors are of greatest importance in mediating this response.


Safety and side effects of GH treatment

Acromegaly is the result of taking HGH after the bones have fused. This results in bone thickness which causes broadening of the hand, feet, and face, skin thickness, and soft tissue will grow. Internal organs typically enlarge. long term of use will lead to suffering from muscles and joint weakness and often heart disease. Cardiomyopathy is the most common cause of death with HGH use. Glucose intolerance, and hypertension, Pain or bruising at the injection site, mild headache, type 2 diabetes. GH therapy may decrease the amount of cortisol production.


Growth hormone receptor (GHR) which Is better High or low?

According to Elzein and Goodyer (2014) when HGH binds to its receptor (GHR) on target cells in the lever, then activates multiple intracellular pathways, and that leads to changes in gene expression, differentiation, and metabolism.

If the body has a GHR deficiency then will associate with growth and metabolic disorders whereas increased GHR expression has been reported in certain cancers, the author suggests that the GHR gene requires tight controls. Those who have low GHR levels or have a dysfunctional GHR do not respond normally to HGH and they suffer from many problems such as short bones, decreased bone mineral density, and increased adiposity, and they are at risk for osteoporosis, lipid disorders, and cardiovascular disease.


Should I take biosynthetic growth hormone therapy?

According to Elzein and Goodyer (2014) If HGH secretion is high or elevated functional GHR levels is also high in target tissues, then exhibit excessive growth and very abnormal metabolic activities, leading to an increased incidence of cardiomyopathies, diabetes, hypertension, and several types of cancers such as breast cancer, leukemia, prostate, colorectal, and gastric cancers. That’s why you should be careful before taking any HGH therapy by looking at the level of the HGH and GHR in your body. Many athletes take HGH therapy without checking the level of HGH and GHR and then they get into medical morbidities, to understand the case you should check the level of HGH and GHR before any use of HGH.


According to Reh. C and Geffner. M (2010) pituitary GH was given 2 days per week, but then it was discovered that dividing the weekly dose into 3 injections yielded better growth rates (Milner RD, Russell-Fraser T, Brook CG, et al).


It was ultimately discovered that daily injections lead to even better growth (Kastrup KW, Christiansen JS, Andersen JK, Orskov H). Also, has been confirmed by many studies (Jorgensen JO, Moller N, Lauritzen T, Alberti KG, Orskov H & Christiansen JS), (MacGillivray MH, Baptista J & Johanson A).


Serum levels of GH reach a super physiological maximum of 2 to 6 hours after an SC injection and then fall by about 12 hours (Ranke MB, Schweizer R, Wollmann HA & Schwarze P). Injections in the evening have been shown to result in a more physiological pattern of glucose and protein metabolites than if GH is given in the morning (Jorgensen JO, Moller N, Lauritzen T, Alberti KG, Orskov H & Christiansen JS). Therefore, rhGH is currently used as a once-daily SC injection, typically given late in the evening in an attempt.


The recommended dose of human growth hormone HGH 

The physiological prepubertal production rate of GH is 0.02 mg/kg/day (0.06 IU/kg/day) which increases two to four times during puberty. The goal of treatment is to mimic these levels while minimizing side effects. There is a wide range of recommended dosing of GH internationally for the treatment of GHD. GH dose ranges between 0.5 to 0.7 IU/kg/week (0.17 to 0.23 mg/kg/week) in most countries. The highest doses are used in the US and range from 0.17 to 0.35 mg/kg/week, while the smallest doses are used in Japan (0.5 IU/kg/week). Data from a study by Tanaka using an international survey showed a range of initial GH treatment doses by country, see table (1) (Tanaka, T).

Table 1

Growth hormone (GH) treatment doses used in GH deficiency

Country Dosage of GH used
Australia 0.5–0.7 IU/kg/wk (14–22 IU/m2/wk)
Canada 0.18–0.24 mg/kg/wk (0.5–0.72 IU/kg/wk)
France 0.6–0.9 IU/kg/wk
Germany 0.5 IU/kg wk, can be increased based on response
Japan 0.5 IU/kg wk
Israel no limitation
Netherlands 14 U/m2/wk (0.5 IU/kg/wk), can be increased based on response
Spain prepubertal 0.5 IU/kg/wk, puberty 0.5–0.6 IU/kg/wk
Taiwan 0.7 IU/kg/wk
Sweden  0.1 U/kg/day (0.7 IU/kg/wk)
United Kingdom 14–20 IU/m2/wk, 0.5–0.7 IU/kg/wk
United States 0.17–0.35 mg/kg/wk (0.525–1.05 IU/kg/wk)




Monitoring with serum IGF-1 levels specific for age, gender, and Tanner stage must be used to determine the safe and optimal GH dose in puberty (Park P & Cohen P). Currently, many endocrinologists continue treatment through puberty with close monitoring of height velocity, bone age, serum IGF-1 levels, and pubertal progression to ensure the maximal effect of treatment. In most countries, GH therapy is continued until height velocity decreases to <2.5 cm/year and/or until the bone age is advanced to between 13 to 15 years for girls and 15.5 to 16 years for boys. Evaluation of patients with GHD shows that multiple factors affect final height: number of injections per week, duration of treatment, age at diagnosis, and, most of all, genetic height potential. Estrogen is critical for bone growth and epiphyseal maturation in both males and females, especially during puberty. The delicate balance between GH and estrogen becomes critical in patients.




Exercise and certain amino acid supplements stimulate HGH release from the pituitary. But this normal release doesn’t affect muscle protein syntheses or muscle mass or strength. Normal release effect first the lipolysis and then when the level increase does affect muscle protein syntheses or muscle mass or strength. For example, people who are living in the Islamic countries and waking up early in the morning they can get a deficiency in the secreted amount of HGH and that’s can seem on the length of the bones and the obesity people have compared with people in Europe or the USA nevertheless most of the Islamic country has more sun. All we know that the sun can help too much the growth of the bones and decreasing obesity.


Diabetes 2

Diabetes 2


HGH Is the best treatment for diabetes because it helps burn fat and build muscles and in fact muscle burn also fat and when they burn fat it will be easier to glucose to enter inside the muscles for use as energy, by the way, all the amount of sugar which inter the bloodstream will be burned as energy.


A large study conducted in the UK by Ritchie. D et al. (2017) Treatment with human growth hormone derived from others’ pituitary gland, by intramuscular or subcutaneous injection, causes a disease called iatrogenic Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease (iCJD) and this is one of many acquired forms of human prion disease. Prion disease is a “transmissible neurodegenerative disorders characterized by the accumulation of a disease-associated misfolded form of the normal cellular prion protein (PrPC) in the central nervous system (CNS)”. When a prion enters a healthy organism, it induces existing, properly folded proteins to convert into the misfolded prion form, by altering their shape. Prions consist mostly of an abnormal form which characterizes as Prion Protein Scrapie (PrPSc) and the spreading of prion cause disease. The prion is a molecule, not a living organism, is naturally present on the surface of neurons and this disease occurs in sporadic, genetic, and acquired forms.


Since 1985, over 240 cases in several countries have been reported that people who recipients from HGH developed iCJD. 50% of hGH-iCJD and HGH control cases, developed CNS amyloid beta-protein (Aβ) accumulation, which characterizes by the accumulation of abnormal proteins in the pituitary gland and the CNS which is associated with Alzheimer’s disease-like neuropathology, vascular complications. HGH recipients may be at risk of developing the complications of cerebral amyloid angiopathy CAA, lobar cerebral hemorrhage, perivascular inflammation, and cognitive impairment. In the method five groups have been used, two groups treated with HGH compared to three groups not treated with HGH.

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Kickboxing Top 18 Effects That Will Change Your Life

Boxing - Martial art training

Kickboxing burn body fat

To improve your fitness and lose weight at the same time and do something more exciting than jogging on a treadmill to keep you motivated, perhaps you should consider doing a martial art like boxing, or kickboxing. In the last years, martial arts training is being used in cardio workouts for fitness and weight loss by personal trainers and coaches. Martial art training such as kickboxing is typically high intensity and usually lasts for at least an hour in most cases. High-intensity training requires much energy and oxygen and that can push the body to build up more mitochondria, and as we know that mitochondria are the fat-burning machine in our cells in the muscles. So, the more mitochondria we have, the more fat we will burn. Kickboxing can help burns a maximum number of kilojoules or calories per workout and therefore it is great for anyone who wants to lose weight fast. According to Chaabene, Tabben, Mkaouer, Franchini, and Negra “High-level male and female boxers show a propensity for low body fat levels” study shows also that elite-level male boxers are characterized by a higher proportion of mesomorph body type with a well-developed muscle mass and a low body fat level.

Kickboxing Fight

Kickboxing Fight

Kickboxing and cardiovascular fitness and endurance

Kickboxing maintains repetitive high-intensity actions and improves Cardiovascular fitness. Cardiovascular fitness improvements require us to regularly elevate our heart rate for extended periods and most kickboxing training can help us do that.


Kickboxing Improving the strength and power

To improve or maintain muscle strength so muscles require us to regularly subject them to some form of resistance training or force. Kickboxing has to do with a force more than resistance training. Heavy resistance training can help us to activate more motor unite, but force training helps us to generate more power. To understand the case let’s look at this example. In physics, a force is any interaction that, when unopposed, will change the motion of an object. A force can cause an object with mass to change its velocity. Force can also be described intuitively as a push or a pull. (F=m.a), F= force, m is the invariant mass, and A is the acceleration.

Kickboxing Improving the strength and power

Kickboxing Improving the strength and power

Some weight lifter who trains resistance training at the gym they may get their maximal strength, and may they can’t add more weight in their training and they stay at the same weigh for a long time and they can’t add more. Here is the best way for them to add more force and jump to a new weight. The key factor here is the acceleration, when acceleration increase then the force will increase according to the low. In sports science when the movement depends on the acceleration then it called ballistic movement. Now we should know that we can get strength not only from resistance training but also from ballistic movements. Why the ballistic movement? because the ballistic movement depends on acceleration. Boxing and kicking are the same as ballistic movements such as throwing iron balls.


Kickboxing Improving our bones density

Bones get more density when we subject them to some form of resistance training or force


The difference in Bone-Density

Kickboxing Improving the flexibility

When we are kicking and boxing our body temperature get high and that can help us to stretch the muscles easily

kickboxing helps us in self-defence

One of the most obvious benefits of doing kickboxing is that it provides us with the fitness, power, strength, skills, flexibility and techniques necessary to protect ourselves from being attacked by others who are out to harm us.


kickboxing helps us in self-confidence

kickboxing provides us a high degree of self-confidence. This self-confidence partly results from the knowledge and skills that we earned during training and interaction with others.


kickboxing improves body balance and coordination

Task coordination skills are acquired and improved under dual-task practice conditions, but not when practicing each task in isolation under single-task practice conditions (Hirst et al., 1980; Kramer et al., 1995; Strobach et al., 2014) that means kickboxing is better than only boxing for coordination improvement.


Performing two-component tasks simultaneously at the same time (i.e., dual tasks) can be extremely difficult but this difficulty is often reduced after practice. For example, if we kick with one leg and punching with tow arms at the same time, it will be difficult to perform it for the first time, but by practice, it will be easy. Under the practice, you will notice that you perform it with bad balance but when you get full control of the coordination of the movement then balance will be improved.

The cerebellum, in the back of the brain, controls balance, coordination, and fine muscle control. Uncoordinated movement is due to a muscle control problem that causes an inability to coordinate movements. Kickboxing helps us to use many elements together and control these elements during movement. During kicking and boxing, many muscles work together and that can improve our coordination.


kickboxing is inexpensive

Doing kickboxing is inexpensive because you don’t need many tools the only you need is Boxing Gloves, Mouth Guard, Shin Guards, Ankle Support Wraps (optional), Headgear, Hand Wraps. Most people train home or with friends and that makes kickboxing inexpensive compared to joining some gyms and hiring some personal trainers.


Doing Kickboxing has a social aspect

Instead of training at the gym with weight, bar, stone, and dumbbells, you can train boxing with friends or family. People can talk but gym equipment doesn’t do that.


Improve the nervous system 

The central nervous system (CNS) driven by the brain and the spinal, Nervous system controls the body by billions of nerve cells called neurons. The central nervous system is divided into two parts: parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous systems. The parasympathetic nervous system supports your autonomic functions like breathing, metabolic rates, controls senses, and memories. Also, it controls the way we move, the words we talk, and how we think and learn, and so on. The sympathetic system activates what is often termed the fight or flight response. During practicing kickboxing, our bodies work as a whole unit and that can activate the Nervous system hardly by using feeling, muscles, thinking, and that can increase the connection between nerve cells.


Kickboxing Reduce Stress

One of the major benefits of kickboxing is to reduce stress, kickboxing can help increase the release of endorphins in your body. Endorphins hormones secreted within the brain and nervous system and having several physiological functions. Endorphins provide feelings of euphoria and make us feel good by inhibiting pain signals.


Size and shape

Kickboxing providing better shape because helps in burning fat and building muscles.

Kickboxing Shape

Kickboxing Shape

As a result of providing all of these fitness benefits. The best way to burn body fat during exercise and get the maximal effect of the aerobic capacity is to raise the heartbeat to the 70 % of the maximal heart capacity, to calculate the maximal heartbeat, you should subtract from the number 220, your actual age. Then you should multiple the difference with 70 % (0,70) for example a 30 years man wants to train with capacity 70% of a heartbeat. For example 220 – 30 = 90 => 90 . 0,70 = 133 beat.

Kickboxing Improving flexibility

Kickboxing Improving flexibility

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Doping in Bodybuilding and Fitness competitions

Doping in Bodybuilding and Fitness Competitions

Doping is defined by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) as the use of a substance or method that is dangerous for the athlete’s health and/or improves the athlete’s performance. Many federations prohibit doping, but most federations are not serious about doping control, because they want to attract athletes and to raise the quality of their contests. In the fitness industry, there is a big contest about dominant and business even politics can be involved in. Let’s discuss a known federation called IFBB. International Federation of Body Builders to which many famous competitions in the United States are affiliated to.


IFBB, founded in 1946, is registered under Spanish law as an ideal legal entity. The federation is international and is involved in bodybuilding and fitness. IFBB has performed doping control since 1986, at IFBB Continental and World Championships. There the check took place in random selection. Several athletes selected randomly throughout the event were e.g. at weighing or at the final before the selection. In 2003 in Mumbai, India, IFBB accepted the World Anti-Doping Code. Many famous competitions are affiliated with this federation, for example, to participate in the Arnold Amateur or Olympia Amateur the competitor must contact IFBB in the country were the competitor live in and only those who are affiliated to IFBB who can participate in those competitions. (IFBB, 2015).


If we make a comparison between competitions in Sweden and the United States. In the United States and Sweden, athletes compete in the categories: Men’s Bodybuilding, Men’s Physique, Women’s Physique, Women’s Body Fitness, Women’s Bikini Fitness, Women’s Fitness. By looking at a competition in Sweden such as Luciapokalen, we will notice a big difference in muscle mass between individuals participating in the luciapokalen and individuals participating in the Arnold Classic or IFBB World / IFBB Continual Championships or Olympia Amateur or the Ben Weider Legacy Cup / IFBB Diamond Cup.


What can it depend on? Is it eating habits or exercise programs or genetics that make such a big difference in muscle mass. Both the IFBB and the Luciapokalen have the same list of the prohibited substances, but can they manipulate this? I think there is a Leniency in doping control, which means that those who go to the Arnold Classic take a lot of doping preparations before the contests and then they wait for the body to clean it self’s off those substances, and then they compete because control is only done at weighing or at the final.


While in the luciapokalen the control is more serious because according to RF (2013) The controls are conducted by doping control officers, doping tests are conducted in conjunction with a competition and also taken on other occasions, for example through home visits. The test is taken in the form of urine and blood tests, in doping control, then the athlete has to give a urine and / or blood test. Therefore, I think the athlete in Sweden does not dare to do that because the control does not only take place at the final but still during almost the whole session.


There is a theory that Americans know that athletes use preparations and they do not want to change the time of control because they want to give athletes a chance to be on steroids. Americans federations don’t want to reveal about the athletes, because this can keep the contests maintaining high levels of attention, as the unique giant bodybuilder can attract the whole world’s focus to the fitness industry in the United States because that contributes to a good economy, as well as the media and politics are always featured in this pit. But what’s the risk of doping on sport and society? Many points are open for dissection. The consequences of abuse of doping rules are high. usually, there is something called Disqualification. Disqualification is a risk and that means results in a contest or event are invalid, there is a risk of forfeiting of medals, points, or prizes. Besides, the athlete may have barred from participating in any competition or other activities.


In bodybuilding and fitness, athletes usually use Peptide Hormones, Growth Factors and Androgenic Anabolic Steroids (AAS), Growth Hormone (GH), Testosterone, insulin, and Growth Factor-1 (IGF-1) All of these preparations are on the list but who cares? Almost all who step on stage have used such preparations, but how can they manipulate the tests? And how well can the controller detect the abuse? the answer difficult, because when athletes taking GH and (IGF-1), initially it is difficult to detect but in the meanwhile, you see the effects of those substances on the body such as the intestines are enlarged, which makes you look like a pregnant woman. and the stomachs are split apart, and a large gap occurs. GH allows all body organs to grow including the heart, brain, testicle depending on how many receptors the athlete has.

The bad side of doping

Steroids can damage the liver and heart, liver damage from anabolic steroids comes mainly from the use of oral alkylated anabolic steroids. The most common alkylated steroids are Dianabol, Anadrol, Oxandrolone (Anavar), and Winstrol. For a long time of use, scar tissue can be formed in the liver which is later difficult to heal. The other non-alkylated steroids have less effect, such as testosterone, Trenbolon, Masteron, boldenon (EQ), nandrolone (Deca), and Primobolan. Abuse with anabolic occurrence sometimes causes cardiomyopathy, which thickens the heart walls, which makes the heart weaker. There is less opportunity to pump blood through the body and maintain a normal electrical rhythm. This can lead to heart failure during physical activity.


Ethical and moral aspects

However, there are exceptions, for example, to use such preparators, athletes with chronic illnesses or other complications may seek to written permission to take doping classified drugs from a doctor as medication. This may apply from amphetamine to growth hormone. But how ethically or morally correct is this? According to IFBB (2016), Lauren Harken was caught doping Anastrozole (hormone supplements) Oxandrolone (anabolic substance), metabolite 17- Epioxandrolone (ergogenic substance), clenbuterol (Performance-enhancing substance).


In Amateur Olympia 2015 in Australia. She is off until 2020. All these substances you can apply for exemption (dispensation) on the RF website or WADA if you have medication in a medical certificate signed by a licensed physician. Doping methods which may be a future problem is gene doping, which is the transfer of polymers of nucleic acids and the use of normal or genetically modified cells. Right now, that method is expensive but if it becomes cheap in the future then it will make a big change in sport.


Requirements Analysis

All athletes are responsible for knowing what constitutes an anti-doping rule violation and the topics and methods that have been included in the prohibited list. Athletes must have reached the age of 18 and have accepted the rules. The contests have different requirements, and the requirements differ from bodybuilding to Men’s Physique, for example, bodybuilding, big muscles are needed throughout the body with symmetry and separation between muscles, while Men’s Physique does not require so many muscles especially in the legs, the entire focus is on the upper body, fitness, and personality.


Our philosophy

Sport is about a long-term plan that comes with a high quality of physical and mental health. Astrakos philosophy was always “a real hero is not who reaches the top, a real hero is who stays on the top” Astrakos. So, does it deserves to use anabolic to win one day and then disappear the rest of life from the arena, but in some cases when the solution is limited, for example in practice abdominal fat can cause brain diseases and testosterone therapy can counteract abdominal fat, which means that testosterone therapy may be good for those who have abdominal fat in short term. The biggest question is about the consequences of using these therapies.

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Diseases and injuries at the Gyms

Ligament Injuries

Diseases and injuries in the sports industry are a crucial issue that affects performance in general. Many practitioners suffer from diseases and injuries due to lack of proper instructions or the bad environment in the gym such as cleanliness or bad ventilation. Administration in the gym must always consider this by identifying the risks to prevent the occurrence of injuries and diseases of athletes.


In gyms, there are free weights stations, aerobic training machines, and jumping stations. Such a gym must not forget Instructions, technique, proper execution, and saving resources, as well as the cleanliness and ventilation of the gym, are crucial factors for preventing infections and diseases. Administration in the gym must always take this into account. Here are some examples of injuries and diseases that may affect practitioners and how to take security measures: Adequate space to prevent injury, for example, exercise with free weights requires a certain area to be carried out and especially when it comes to exercises like jerk lift and squat. Always make sure that there is enough space to carry out the exercise safely without coming into contact with objects or other visitors.


Ligament Injuries

According to a study, 20-25% of all sports-related injuries are on the ligament on the outside of the ankle. The injury mechanism often occurs when the foot is inverted and in the plantar flexion position. This can happen, for example, when athletes jump or make roller jump. The damage can be avoided by fixing a special place for jumping with an applied surface. Besides, there must always be a “gym box” containing, for example, elastic bandages and patches.


Fraction on the radius-lower beam end

Usually, fractures on the Radius lower beam end happen with a ballplayer or when athletes try to make a jump where he or she is landing in a wrong position. The injury mechanism occurs when the arm is extended and may occur before the growth zone is fused. In case it can cause pain and swelling, as well as the lower part of the radius, can angle backward. Weightlifters usually try to jump high to get explosives in the legs and often fall and end up in a wrong position where the arm is extended. Therefore, it is important to fix a special place for jumping with an applied surface to avoid the damage.

Fraction on the radius-lower beam end

Fraction on the radius-lower beam end

Cramp injury (spasms)

Cramp is a painful, involuntary muscle contraction typically caused by fatigue or strain, usually happen due to deficiencies of oxygen, salt or fluid in the skeletal muscle, even cooling, disease and poisoning or toxin can cause muscle spasms. Cramps occur most in the legs and the calves as well as the stomach muscles.


Seizures may happen due to overstrain the muscles and stress. It can be treated by directly stretching the affected muscles and then absorbing minerals such as magnesium and salt. Massage can also help. In the gym Cramp often occurs with great physical exertion. when athletes try to do set up exercise then gastrointestinal cramps may occur and, in this case, stretching should be applied. Put in your mind that in the case of uncontrolled stretching, cramps may occur in the muscles. It’s important with the instruction board that shows the right stretching exercises or through inspiration during group training, their members can be inspired about the exercises and how to perform them.


Infections and Diseases

Infections are caused by viruses or bacteria, for example, colds are caused by a virus. In addition, there are many different types of viruses that can affect different parts of the body, for example when bacteria take over the body it causes complications such as myocardial infarction, Myocarditis, inflammation of the pericardium, or cardiac inflammation, thus reducing the performance of the athletes. Myocarditis can cause sudden death at the gym because it “relates to the fact that when the infection is located in an organ that is heavily stressed during exercise, especially during endurance training then can cause failure to the organ.


Everybody at the gym is at risk to get infected, because of different causes, but one of them is because viruses and bacteria live in moisture, for example, sweat can stand on machines and tools and bacteria benefit there. They can be transmitted to others through physical contact with the machines and make infections, but cleaning can reduce the risk of these diseases. Skin infections are also common, that’s why Astrakos doesn’t recommend to train with uncovered skin. Even viruses can be transmitted through the air that’s why it is important to have good ventilation at the gym. Instructions for cleaning with the detergent should be highlighted.


Everybody after using the machine must always mop the machines. The carpets are as dirty as the floor. bacteria from the bare feet, sweaty bodies, and dirty clothes easily end up on the floors and exercise mats, the rugs must be washed frequently, showers and changing rooms must be cleaned frequently because foot warts and warts can thrive and spread between different feet. Sometimes, during physical activities sudden death occurs with underlying heart disease and malignant fainting. Vascular cramp /effort (effort angina) is provoked by physical or mental exertion.


Abuse with anabolic substances sometimes causes cardiomyopathy, which thickens the heart walls, which makes the heart weaker through the limited area for the heart to contract. There is less opportunity to pump blood through the body and maintain a normal electrical rhythm. This can lead to heart failure during physical activity, so it is important to have a heart start in the gym and instructions on how it is used.

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How to be a professional football Player

Be A Professional Football Player

To be a professional football player is not a short process, it is a long process. The process starts in childhood. Football is not like other sport which can keep the curve up until later of age. Many football players finish their careers in the 30th years of age, in contrast to arm-wrestling which best curve can achieve in the 30th years of age. Everybody can start to play football at age 5, the big focus should be on flexibility and coordination, then in the age of 8, the technique and tactics should be added to the training program, and in the age of 13 balance and strength training can be added to the training program. 


Later in the 15 years of age speed can be added. In the adolescent age, mental coaching is very important. Youth need too much inspiration to produce more skills. So, all these skills which be learned from the age of 5 until the end of the carrier should be performed from time to time because everything if you don't use it, you lose it. Especially flexibility skills. An athlete can be a professional at the age of 18 if he or she follows this process.

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Factors That Affect Football Juggling

Football Juggling

In the last decades, many researchers used analytical techniques and advanced measurement systems to understand the kicking skill and the factors that can influence its performance. There are many aspects that can influence the football juggling such as properties of the shoe, the upper body, the placement of the support foot, support leg and pelvis on the kicking action, ball impact, the influences of footwear on foot, the way a player approaches, reaction forces, flexion/extension joint moments and the flight characteristics of the ball.

According to a study, the use of soccer footwear reduces the impact of pain compared with unshod kicking, also reduces ball velocity by up to 1.5%. Moreover, football players can kick faster without shoes and the shoe upper material friction can reduce ball velocity by up to 1.2%. elsewhere another study shows that shoe weight does not affect ball velocity. While an increase of weight has been shown to reduce foot velocity and the lighter one may be beneficial.



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Should Children and Adolescents Train Resistance Training

Health, Health Guide, Physiology Topics, Should Children And Adolescents Train Resistance Training

Most people are driven by misconceptions and myths about pediatric resistance training. Some of the myth are:

  1. Children are more susceptible to injury due to the un-fused growth plates.

  2. Resistance training would be harmful to the developing skeleton.

  3. Children cannot gain strength from resistance training due to a lack of testosterone.

  4. Weights training will stunt children and adolescent’s growth.


In this article, we aim to give athletes, coaches, and parents a better understanding of the health benefit from resistant training and the manual to understand the case such as:

  1. What age is appropriate to start strength training?

  2. What is the frequency of strength training?

  3. What is the intensity of strength training?

  4. What are the rest periods?

  5. What is the recommended volume?

  6. What is the risk of training at childhood age?

All these questions and more questions related to this subject we answer it with high quality of references from the newest articles in the research industry.


What age is appropriate to start strength training?

A study conducted in Australia by Duhig with 18 prepubescent under <12 years of age. Children were strength-trained three times per week for 9 weeks and the result ended with a 42.9% increase in strength. The increase was in adaptations in muscle excitation-contraction coupling, increasing motor unit activation, and improving motor skill coordination. On the contrast of the myth that says “weights training will stunt children and adolescent’s growth” a large study from the UK conducted by Lloyd, confirmed that resistant training gives positive alterations in overall body composition and metabolic health in children and adolescents.


 The befit of strength training for children

  1. For children strength training can enhance cardiac function.

  2. Enhance bone-mineral density and improve skeletal health.

  3. Muscular strength increases due to the maturation of the central nervous system such as improvements in motor unit recruitment.

  4. Improvement in firing frequency.

  5. Improvement in synchronisation.

  6. Improvement in neural myelination.


A study has shown that children 5–6 years of age made noticeable improvements in muscular fitness with resistance training exercises using free weights, elastic resistance bands and machine weights.


The benefits of strength training for Adolescents

  1. For adolescents, resistance training can increase muscular strength due to the structural changes that resulting from the increase of hormonal concentrations, for males more due testosterone, growth hormone, and insulin-like growth factor, which lead to increases in muscle cross-sectional area due increasing in muscle fiber size.

  2. The increase in the number of muscle fibers determined as a result of prenatal myogenesis which means the formation of muscular tissue, particularly during embryonic development.

  3. Increasing activation in the motor unit and improving the neural development, in additional resistance training can even reduce body fat, improve insulin sensitivity, and reduce injury risk.

On the contrast to the traditional fears and misinformed concerns that says, “resistance training would be harmful to the developing skeleton” The fears that resistance training would injure the growth plates of youths or reduce eventual height in adulthood are not supported by scientific reports or clinical observations, furthermore it will increase bone-mineral density. For female resistance training programmes have been shown to reduce abnormal biomechanics, induce the neuromuscular spurt and decrease injury rates.


Elsewhere, another study by Micheli estimated on the contrast of the myth that says “Children are more susceptible to injury due to the un-fused growth plates” suggests that chance to have injury is less in a child (<13 years of age) than of an adolescent (13-19 years of age) because the epiphyseal plate of a child is stronger and more resistant to shearing forces.


What is the epiphyseal plate?

The epiphyseal plate is an area where the formation of new bone is possible. It is located at each end of long bones. In this area remodeling and development of new bone occur enabling the long bone to grow in length and girth until the closure of the growth plate at skeletal maturity. The plate is found in children and adolescents and after that age the entire cartilage becomes replaced by bone, leaving only a thin epiphyseal scar which later disappears.

The epiphyseal plate consists of three principal layers with immature cells in the resting zone. “Stem-like cells in the resting zone have a finite proliferative capacity that is gradually exhausted, which consequently results in the fusion of the growth plate at the end of puberty” (EMONS et al. 2009, P. 654).



The recommended training program for children and adolescents

The recommended training program should include exercises that target the balance, coordination, and strength at the same movement with complex movement with the right technique.


What is the minimum age for training?

The minimal age for a child to start weight training is 6 years of age.


How many times should the youth train?

According to two studies the athlete should weight train 2-3 days per week.


In which intensity should youth train?

The intensity should be 6-15RM or 50-85% 1RM the studies mention that intensity should be moderate to high. For those who are overweight and has obese low intensity is recommended. The rest period is at least 3 minutes between sets and exercises while another study says one minute should suffice for most children.


How much volume should the youth train?

A study mentions that an overall volume of 1-3 sets per muscle group while a long duration for those who are overweight and has obese.


Adolescents and youth should not train strength training without supervision

According to Jonasson et al. (2014) overloading the hips in growing individuals can disrupt the epiphyseal plate. Even Faigenbaum et al. (2009, P. 62) mention that growth cartilage can be easily damaged by repetitive microtrauma, improper lifting techniques, or maximal lift. That’s why We in think that strength training should be followed by the supervision of a qualified trainer because if youth hurt themselves in the epiphyseal plate in a sport especially by accident injury, that can lead sometimes to deleterious or dysfunction in that area and may growth not occur partially or completely. We want to mention also that most of the studies have investigated muscles related issues, bone density, neural issues, fat issues, but there are limited studies that investigate bone volume and length. That’s why new studies should be conducted with a focus not only on bone density but also on the bone volume and length.




Duhig. S. (2013). strength training for the young athlete. Journal of Australian strength and conditioning. Journal of Australian strength and conditioning. 21(4), pp. 53-58. (02-01-2018)

Emons, J., Chagin, A, S., Hultenby, K., Zhivotovsky, B., Wit, J, m., Karperien, M. & Sävendahl, L. (2009). Epiphyseal Fusion in the Human Growth Plate Does not Involve Classical Apoptosis. International pediatric research foundation. 66(6), pp. 654-659.  DOI:0031-3998/09/6606-0654.

Faigenbaum, D., Kraemer, W, J., Blimkie, C., Jeffreys, I., Micheli, L, J., Nitka, M & Rowland, T, W. (2009). Youth resistance training: updated position statement paper from the national strength and conditioning association. National strength and conditioning Association. (23), pp. 60-79. Doi: 10.1519/JSC.0b013e31819df407.

Jonasson, P, S., Ekström, L., Swärd, A., Sansone, M., Ahlden, M. & Karlsson, J. (2014). Strength of the porcine proximal femoral epiphyseal plate: the effect of different loading directions and the role of the perichondrial fibrocartilaginous complex and epiphyseal tubercle – an experimental biomechanical study. journal of experimental orthopaedics. 1 (4), p.1.

Lloyd, S,R., Faigenbaum, A, D., Stone, M, H ., Oliver, J, L., Jeffreys, I., Moody, J, A.,   Brewer, C.,  Pierce, C, K., McCambridge M, T.,  Howard, R., Herrington, L., Hainline,H., Micheli, J, L., Jaques,R., Kraemer, W, J., McBride, G, M., Best, T, M.,  Chu,D, A., Alvar,B, A. & Myer, G, D. (2013). Position statement on youth resistance training. International consensus. pp. 1-12. doi:10.1136/bjsports2013-092952.

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