Fatty acids known also as fat, there are three types of lipoproteins.
- low density lipoprotein (LDL) Saturated. The LDL cholesterol is called also “bad cholesterol”.
- High density lipoprotein (HDL) Monounsaturated or Polyunsaturated. The HDL cholesterol is called “Good cholesterol”.
- Trans unsaturated fatty acids, (Trans fat) The dangerous fat for the body.
Fatty Acids Molecule
Fatty acids molecule
Fatty acid molecule consists of a long chain of carbon atoms, starts with a carboxylic acid, and continue with a long aliphatic chain, which is either saturated or unsaturated. Besides, when the carbon atoms in the aliphatic chain have a mono bond (non-double bonds) then called saturated, and when carbon atoms have double bonds then called monounsaturated fatty acids and when carbon atoms have two or more double bonds then called polyunsaturated fatty acids. Moreover, there are also Phospholipids which is a lipid that found in cell membranes as phospholipid bilayers.
Food rich in mono unsaturated fatty acids
The best sources of monounsaturated fats found in extra virgin olive oil, sesame seed, almonds, cashew nuts, pecans, and avocados. Cooking with oils from monounsaturated fats is not recommended because of the tendency of these oils to oxidation.
Food rich in poly unsaturated fatty acids
Polyunsaturated fats found in walnuts, pumpkinseed, nuts, pine nuts, sunflower seeds, watermelon seeds, flax seeds or flax oil, rapeseed oil, soybean oil, corn oil, and fish, such as salmon, mackerel, herring, albacore tuna, trout, and coffee.
Food rich in saturated fatty acids
Saturated fat found in butter, meat, palm oil, and full fat and low-fat dairy products, such as whole milk, low fat milk, cheese, and cream.
Food rich in Phospholipid
Natural phospholipid derivatives found in egg yolk and can be extracted from soybeans, rapeseed, sunflower, bovine and fish eggs.
Trans-fat occurs by hydrogenation of the unsaturated fat. There convert some of the double bonds into trans double bonds by an isomerization reaction. Consumption of food includes trans fats leads to an increase in the risk of coronary artery disease. Further, trans-fat needs a long time to be cleaned from the body. Fat can be solid or liquid. For example, saturated fatty acid can be solid in a room temperature, while unsaturated fatty acid and trans-fat can be a liquid.
Food rich in Trans fat
Trans fat found in small amounts in butter, beef, and dairy products. Saturated fatty acids and trans-fat are typically known as dangerous for our health, because they stick in the veins and cause high pressure, these types of fat should be replaced with polyunsaturated fatty acids and monounsaturated fatty acids, because these types of fats can increase the good cholesterol (HDL) and reduces the bad cholesterol (LDL). This can in turn reduce the risk of vascular diseases.
The recommended amount of fat in the diet
The intake of the total amount of fat should be between 25-40% of the total energy intake (TEI). 10-20% of total fat intake should be monounsaturated fatty acids and 5-10% should be polyunsaturated fatty acids. According to Johansson polyunsaturated fatty acids should not rise above 10 % because there is a theoretical risk that free radicals increase and the risk of cancer is also present. In addition, the intake of saturated fatty acids should be less than 10% of the total fat intake. Trans fat intake should be below 0%. The body has a good ability to absorb fat from the intestine and it is about at least 95% of the total fat.
A diet containing less than 20% fat, in general, may cause a deficiency in the absorption of some fat-soluble vitamins, therefore, healthy diets should be containing at least 25% of healthy fatty acids because that can reduce LDL and increase triglyceride concentrations in the blood, as well as reduce the insulin resistance. Also, people who eat unlimited amounts of fat will become overweight. Fat intake of more than 50 % of the total energy intake can body store it as bodyfat.
The benefits of omega 3
Omega-3 fatty acids are very important for reducing the inflammation in the body and for memory function, Omega 3 is essential fatty acids and cannot be produced or synthesized by the body that’s’ why must be included in the diet. Omega-3 found in fish such as sardine and salmon. Many studies suggest that must be a balance between Omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids which found in polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA). Also, omega-6 helps brain function, maintain bone health, and some other function.
Why do we need to eat fatty acids?
Fatty acids are a good source of energy for our bodies because every gram fat includes 9 calories.
Fatty acids help the body to absorb fat-soluble vitamins like A, D, E, K.
Phospholipid (fat) are including in cell membranes.
Fatty acids have many functions in the cells in general.
Fatty acids include in our hormone without fatty acids our bodies cannot make hormones.
Put in mind that the unsaturated fatty acids become rancid easily, due to the double bond which can be attacked by the oxygen in the air, therefore, the nature grants shells to the seeds. Further, oils should be saved away from the air because they can be also attacked easily by the oxygen.
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