Sport Science Laboratory

Food rich in Polyphenols are the best pre workout meal

In the fitness industry, athletes use pre-workout food or supplement and there is a question which puzzles the athletes and the researchers over the last decade, what is the best pre-workout supplement. During exercise, the body breaks down the muscles tissue and build free radical which can damage the cells. So, any supplement that can stop this process will be recommended as a pre-workout supplement. According to Gago et al. (2007, p. 1234); Rocha et al. (2009, p. 46) Polyphenols play an antioxidant role through interacting with oxidant radicals by preventing oxidative reactions and promoting nitric oxide NO formation from nitrite. 

What do athletes use before a workout?

Usually, athletes use an ergogenic substance such as arginine and citrulline, to increase the nitric oxide pathway and prevent physiological hypoxia, because under workout when the body lifts weights, skeletal muscles need more oxygen. The good thing here is that there are natural sources that can help us to increase the nitric pathway such as fruit or vegetables that are rich in Polyphenols. A study conducted by Labonté et al. (2013, p. 56) examined how intake of polyphenols modifies brachial artery flow-mediated dilation FMD on eight elite male and female athletes on cycling anaerobic performance and they found that polyphenol-rich drink led to a significant increase in FMD. Moreover, restricted blood flow is a key limiting factor in muscle oxygenation during high-intensity efforts.

 

The effects of grapes on blood pressure, heart rate and peak power

According to Barona et al. (2012, pp. 1626-1630) Polyphenols, found in fruits and vegetables, such as Grapes. Polyphenols have positive biological activities, such as antioxidative, anti-inflammatory effect by decreasing circulating inflammatory molecules, and hypolipidemic effects which mean any supplement which reduces the concentration of lipid in the blood serum. Also, can be beneficial for people with metabolic syndrome by lowering Both systolic and diastolic blood presser (BP) and increasing brachial artery flow-mediated vasodilation FMD response, which even can decrease the risk of cardiovascular disease CVD. Moreover, food rich in Polyphenols enhance the endothelial vasoprotective mechanisms by inducing the formation of NO and reducing the oxidative stress in the arterial wall. According to Labonté et al. (2013, p. 56) “oxidative stress may hamper sports performance, induce fatigue, and delay recovery”.

Grapes ingredients 

Grapes contain numerous polyphenols components, which make the grapes one of the best choices for pre-workout meals. The phytochemicals amount in the freeze-dried grape, mg/100 g there are Flavans 410, Anthocyanins 77, Flavonols which include (Quercetin 3.8, Myricetin 0.255, Kaempferol 0.315), Stilbenes (resveratrol) 0.16. Grape consumption will support the body with 1587 kJ/100g of energy inclusive Macronutrients g/100 such as 91.5 of carbohydrate, 3.9 g of protein and 0.6 g of total fat. Also, with Micronutrients mg/100 such as β-Carotene 0.11, Vitamin C 5.2, Calcium 57, Iron 1.36, Sodium 18.1, Potassium 1050, Thiamin 0.21, Pyridoxine 0.25, Folic acid 0.034, Phosphorus 120, Magnesium 36.5, Zinc 0.299, Copper 0.250, Manganese 0.382 (Barona et al. 2012, p. 1627).

Last but not least Rollea (2012, p. 108) mentioned that the blue dehydrated grape has higher values of glucose than the green and gold grape. Also, with high ratios of Glucose (Glucose/fructose).

Grape Varieties

Grape Varieties

Grapes, seedless, cooked or canned, NS as to sweetened or unsweetened; sweetened, NS as to type of sweetener (USDA)

Serving Size 100 g

Name Amount Unit
Water 79.5 g
Energy 76 kcal
Protein 0.48 g
Total lipid (fat) 0.1 g
Carbohydrate, by difference 19.6 g
Fiber, total dietary 0.6 g
Sugars, total including NLEA 19 g
Calcium, Ca 10 mg
Iron, Fe 0.94 mg
Magnesium, Mg 6 mg
Phosphorus, P 17 mg
Potassium, K 103 mg
Sodium, Na 5 mg
Zinc, Zn 0.05 mg
Copper, Cu 0.054 mg
Selenium, Se 0.1 µg
Vitamin C, total ascorbic acid 1 mg
Thiamin 0.03 mg
Riboflavin 0.022 mg
Niacin 0.125 mg
Vitamin B-6 0.065 mg
Folate, total 3 µg
Folic acid 0 µg
Folate, food 3 µg
Folate, DFE 3 µg
Choline, total 3.8 mg
Vitamin B-12 0 µg
Vitamin B-12, added 0 µg
Vitamin A, RAE 3 µg
Retinol 0 µg
Carotene, beta 38 µg
Carotene, alpha 1 µg
Cryptoxanthin, beta 0 µg
Lycopene 0 µg
Lutein + zeaxanthin 48 µg
Vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol) 0.13 mg
Vitamin E, added 0 mg
Vitamin D (D2 + D3) 0 µg
Vitamin K (phylloquinone) 9.8 µg
Fatty acids, total saturated 0.033 g
4:0 0 g
6:0 0 g
8:0 0 g
10:0 0 g
12:0 0 g
14:0 0.001 g
16:0 0.029 g
18:0 0.004 g
Fatty acids, total monounsaturated 0.004 g
16:1 0 g
18:1 0.004 g
20:1 0 g
22:1 0 g
Fatty acids, total polyunsaturated 0.03 g
18:2 0.023 g
18:3 0.007 g
18:4 0 g
20:4 0 g
20:5 n-3 (EPA) 0 g
22:5 n-3 (DPA) 0 g
22:6 n-3 (DHA) 0 g
Cholesterol 0 mg
Alcohol, ethyl 0 g
Caffeine 0 mg
Theobromine 0 mg
Pyridoxine 0.25  mg
Flavans 410  mg
Quercetin 3.8  mg
Myricetin 0.255  mg
Resveratrol 0.16 mg
Kaempferol 0.315 mg