Obesity Prevention Strategies presented by Astrakos’ society for public health, in this episode, we will teach you the childhood obesity prevention strategies, and how to secure your family from obesity, and what are the main factors that lead to it.
Usually, the pathway of life course effected often, by many involved factors, such as society, neighborhood, family, the individual, area, the cellular levels, the physiological and psychological aspect, as well as, the social exposures.
Recently life course epidemiologists explain how a father’s social class, in childhood, may affect the biological functions and the development of the adults. That means we must be careful about our children and understand that the bad social exposures, can affect negatively the health of our children, especially in puberty.
According to the world health organization, Everybody, less than 18 years of age, has the right of the child and considered as a child. That was adopted by the convention on the rights of the Child.
Childhood is the primary stage of life. What we eat, and do in childhood, has a big effect on adulthood life. Obesity is not only caused by food, but also by social aspects. Obesity rates have increased dramatically over the world in the last 30 years, the World Health Organization is raising the awareness about overweight, and obesity. Due to the increased number of obesity among children. In 2016, an estimated 42 million children under the age of 5, were overweight, or obese. Almost three-quarters of these, live in Asia and Africa. Overweight and obesity in early childhood, increase the risk for social discrimination, sleep apnea, high cholesterol, high blood pressure, type 2 diabetes, and obesity later in life.
Astrakos report is presenting a comprehensive and integrated package, of recommendations, to guide families to address childhood obesity. To create, healthy eating practices, and habits, to prevent obesity among children worldwide. Here we will summarize some key of actions, that are directed to the parents.
Childhood Obesity Prevention Strategies
Parents should promote the intake of healthy foods, which is rich in unsaturated fats, and omega 3, also food should be free from sugars or salt. Parents should also, reduce the intake of unhealthy foods at home.
The unhealthy foods are the foods, which are high in saturated fatty acids, trans- fats, and sugar-sweetened beverages, as well as the energy-dense foods, which have lots of calories per serving. The calories may come from protein, fat, or carbohydrates.
Inform your child, about childhood overweight and obesity, and tell l them about, the consequences of that on health and well-being.
Increase access to healthy foods at home.
Update your health information always, to get an effective prevention guide, of childhood obesity through the consumption of a healthy diet throughout the life course.
Ensure that nutrition information and guidelines for adolescents and children are delivered to adolescents and children in a simple, understandable, and, accessible manner.
Reduce the exposure of children and adolescents, to the power of the marketing of unhealthy foods.
Control the OBESOGENIC ENVIRONMENT, which promotes high energy intake, and sedentary behavior. This includes the foods, that are available, affordable, accessible, and promoted.
Control the physical activity opportunities, and the social norms, concerning food, and physical activity
Develop nutrient profiles, to identify unhealthy foods and beverages
Guide caregivers, on appropriate nutrition, diet, and portion size.
Implement comprehensive programs, that promote physical activity, and reduce sedentary behaviors in children and adolescents
Promote healthy lifestyles, for young children through promoting physical activity, because physical activity, is known to reduce the risk of diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and cancers.
Improve children’s ability to learn their mental health, and well-being. Childhood experience can influence lifelong by physical activity behaviors.
Promote the benefits of physical activity.
Provide guidance to children and adolescents, on healthy body size, physical activity, sleep behaviors, and appropriate use of screen-based entertainment.
Pregnancy is a very critical pathway for child obesity. The risk of obesity can be passed from one generation to the next, because, maternal health, can influence fetal development, and the risk of a child becoming obese.
The care, that women receive before during, and after pregnancy, has profound implications for the later health, and development of their children.
Diagnose and manage hyperglycemia, and gestational hypertension.
Promote a varied diet with all macro and micronutrients.
Promote plant-based foods such as vegetables, fruit, potatoes, whole grain products.
Ensure that diet and nutrition counseling is included in antenatal care.
Avoid the use of and exposure to tobacco, alcohol, drugs, and other toxins.
Provide guidance on and support for, healthy diet, sleep, and physical activity, in early childhood, to ensure that children grow appropriately, and develop healthy habits.
Including the breastfeeding, for the first six months of life, because breastfeeding is the core for optimizing infant development.
Work on early detection, and management of obesity and its associated complications.
Address health nutrition for weight management
Give psychosocial support. The mental health needs of children who are overweight or obese are crucial, including issues of stigmatization and bullying, need to be given special attention.
Obesity can be increased by, the physical environment, such as proximity to grocery stores, vending machines, and access to school food and drink.
Share with your child the foods that contribute to healthy diets, if it is not consumed in appropriate amounts.
Use social media to provide guidance on and support for a healthy diet. Studies have been shown that social media is a perfect way to influence your child.
As a caregiver, be the con-founder that affects the association, not the mediator.
Consider that adolescents will tend to eat the foods, that are available, affordable, accessible, and promoted.
Parents could affect the adolescents’ food choices by the same tools, that have been applied to the adolescents, which is social media.
Obesity leads to bullying, and harassment, oppositional defiant disorder and, conduct disorder.
Improve the availability of mechanisms for purchasing foods from farms.
Plan a physical education at least two times a week.
Improve access to outdoor activity.
Stay in touch with the healthcare center.
This was a presentation of the 37 key of actions, of Astrakos alexanders’ report, after reading all these keys, we on astrakos’ society we confirm that motivation is not enough, moving from motivation to actions could help much more. Also, we focus on parents, because parental values could affect the home environment, Parental values stand for the identity, that parents are caring, which usually impacted by personal thoughts and feeling. Furthermore, the perception that family receive from the public sources, selective services and education which include all, such as, internet, books, magazine, TV, and advertisement, as well as when parents, grandparents or friends undermine their rules over the children’s eating
Human growth hormone (HGH) plays a crucial role and is an essential hormone for the growth of bones and muscle development. Besides, it has important regulatory effects on carbohydrate, protein, and lipid metabolism at all stages of life. HGH is secreted by the anterior pituitary gland and travels through the blood to stimulates the liver to produce a protein Calles insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1). Before 1985 the hormone was obtained from cadaver pituitary extracts, and the supply was limited and expensive.
The seven normal functions of growth hormone that attracted the interest of some coaches and athletes:
Stimulation of protein and nucleic acid synthesis in skeletal muscle.
Stimulation of bone growth (elongation) if bones are not yet fused.
Stimulation of insulin-like growth factor.
Increase in lipolysis leading to an increase in free fatty acids and an overall decrease in body fat.
Increase in blood glucose levels because the body uses the fat, not glucose.
Enhancement of healing after musculoskeletal injuries.
Increase in collagen synthesis.
Does measurement of the random serum levels of HGH useful?
Growth hormone is produced in bursts and its levels quickly fall, but IGF-1 levels reflect the overall daily production of growth hormone. For all these reasons, interpreting the results of blood tests for pituitary hormones is complex. GH secretion from the pituitary gland is dependent on the sleep-wake cycle and, therefore, measurement of random serum levels of GH is not clinically useful.
According to Reh. C and Geffner. M (2010) HGH binds to its receptor on targeting cells in the liver and cartilage, leading to the production of IGF-1, which through endocrine and paracrine/ autocrine mechanisms, then stimulates bone growth. HGH acts at the epiphysis (growth plate) to increase linear growth by promoting differentiation of prechondrocytes and the expansion of osteoblasts.
Human Growth Hormone Treats Obesity
Exercise and mobilization of body fat
HGH is one of the many factors that are responsible for increasing fatty acid mobilization. HGH increases sharply with exercise and remain elevated for up to several hours in the recovery period. Adipose tissue is more sensitive to either the sympathetic nervous system or the increasing level of the circulating Catecholamines.
The adrenal glands make large amounts of catecholamines as a reaction to stress. The main catecholamines are epinephrine (adrenaline), norepinephrine (noradrenaline), and dopamine. They break down into Vanillylmandelic acid (VMA), Metanephrine, and Normetanephrine. Catecholamines can serve as neurotransmitters, transferring signals from neuron to neuron, as well as hormones, which regulate physiological functions such as your heartbeat and breathing rate. Even mobilization accrues in response to a specific fat-mobilization substance that is responsive to elevated levels of activity, that’s why we can’t state with certainty which factors are of greatest importance in mediating this response.
Safety and side effects of GH treatment
Acromegaly is the result of taking HGH after the bones have fused. This results in bone thickness which causes broadening of the hand, feet, and face, skin thickness, and soft tissue will grow. Internal organs typically enlarge. long term of use will lead to suffering from muscles and joint weakness and often heart disease. Cardiomyopathy is the most common cause of death with HGH use. Glucose intolerance, and hypertension, Pain or bruising at the injection site, mild headache, type 2 diabetes. GH therapy may decrease the amount of cortisol production.
Growth hormone receptor (GHR) which Is better High or low?
According to Elzein and Goodyer (2014) when HGH binds to its receptor (GHR) on target cells in the lever, then activates multiple intracellular pathways, and that leads to changes in gene expression, differentiation, and metabolism.
If the body has a GHR deficiency then will associate with growth and metabolic disorders whereas increased GHR expression has been reported in certain cancers, the author suggests that the GHR gene requires tight controls. Those who have low GHR levels or have a dysfunctional GHR do not respond normally to HGH and they suffer from many problems such as short bones, decreased bone mineral density, and increased adiposity, and they are at risk for osteoporosis, lipid disorders, and cardiovascular disease.
Should I take biosynthetic growth hormone therapy?
According to Elzein and Goodyer (2014) If HGH secretion is high or elevated functional GHR levels is also high in target tissues, then exhibit excessive growth and very abnormal metabolic activities, leading to an increased incidence of cardiomyopathies, diabetes, hypertension, and several types of cancers such as breast cancer, leukemia, prostate, colorectal, and gastric cancers. That’s why you should be careful before taking any HGH therapy by looking at the level of the HGH and GHR in your body. Many athletes take HGH therapy without checking the level of HGH and GHR and then they get into medical morbidities, to understand the case you should check the level of HGH and GHR before any use of HGH.
According to Reh. C and Geffner. M (2010) pituitary GH was given 2 days per week, but then it was discovered that dividing the weekly dose into 3 injections yielded better growth rates (Milner RD, Russell-Fraser T, Brook CG, et al).
It was ultimately discovered that daily injections lead to even better growth (Kastrup KW, Christiansen JS, Andersen JK, Orskov H). Also, has been confirmed by many studies (Jorgensen JO, Moller N, Lauritzen T, Alberti KG, Orskov H & Christiansen JS), (MacGillivray MH, Baptista J & Johanson A).
Serum levels of GH reach a super physiological maximum of 2 to 6 hours after an SC injection and then fall by about 12 hours (Ranke MB, Schweizer R, Wollmann HA & Schwarze P). Injections in the evening have been shown to result in a more physiological pattern of glucose and protein metabolites than if GH is given in the morning (Jorgensen JO, Moller N, Lauritzen T, Alberti KG, Orskov H & Christiansen JS). Therefore, rhGH is currently used as a once-daily SC injection, typically given late in the evening in an attempt.
The recommended dose of human growth hormone HGH
The physiological prepubertal production rate of GH is 0.02 mg/kg/day (0.06 IU/kg/day) which increases two to four times during puberty. The goal of treatment is to mimic these levels while minimizing side effects. There is a wide range of recommended dosing of GH internationally for the treatment of GHD. GH dose ranges between 0.5 to 0.7 IU/kg/week (0.17 to 0.23 mg/kg/week) in most countries. The highest doses are used in the US and range from 0.17 to 0.35 mg/kg/week, while the smallest doses are used in Japan (0.5 IU/kg/week). Data from a study by Tanaka using an international survey showed a range of initial GH treatment doses by country, see table (1) (Tanaka, T).
Growth hormone (GH) treatment doses used in GH deficiency
Dosage of GH used
0.5–0.7 IU/kg/wk (14–22 IU/m2/wk)
0.18–0.24 mg/kg/wk (0.5–0.72 IU/kg/wk)
0.5 IU/kg wk, can be increased based on response
0.5 IU/kg wk
14 U/m2/wk (0.5 IU/kg/wk), can be increased based on response
Monitoring with serum IGF-1 levels specific for age, gender, and Tanner stage must be used to determine the safe and optimal GH dose in puberty (Park P & Cohen P). Currently, many endocrinologists continue treatment through puberty with close monitoring of height velocity, bone age, serum IGF-1 levels, and pubertal progression to ensure the maximal effect of treatment. In most countries, GH therapy is continued until height velocity decreases to <2.5 cm/year and/or until the bone age is advanced to between 13 to 15 years for girls and 15.5 to 16 years for boys. Evaluation of patients with GHD shows that multiple factors affect final height: number of injections per week, duration of treatment, age at diagnosis, and, most of all, genetic height potential. Estrogen is critical for bone growth and epiphyseal maturation in both males and females, especially during puberty. The delicate balance between GH and estrogen becomes critical in patients.
Exercise and certain amino acid supplements stimulate HGH release from the pituitary. But this normal release doesn’t affect muscle protein syntheses or muscle mass or strength. Normal release effect first the lipolysis and then when the level increase does affect muscle protein syntheses or muscle mass or strength. For example, people who are living in the Islamic countries and waking up early in the morning they can get a deficiency in the secreted amount of HGH and that’s can seem on the length of the bones and the obesity people have compared with people in Europe or the USA nevertheless most of the Islamic country has more sun. All we know that the sun can help too much the growth of the bones and decreasing obesity.
HGH Is the best treatment for diabetes because it helps burn fat and build muscles and in fact muscle burn also fat and when they burn fat it will be easier to glucose to enter inside the muscles for use as energy, by the way, all the amount of sugar which inter the bloodstream will be burned as energy.
A large study conducted in the UK by Ritchie. D et al. (2017) Treatment with human growth hormone derived from others’ pituitary gland, by intramuscular or subcutaneous injection, causes a disease called iatrogenic Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease (iCJD) and this is one of many acquired forms of human prion disease. Prion disease is a “transmissible neurodegenerative disorders characterized by the accumulation of a disease-associated misfolded form of the normal cellular prion protein (PrPC) in the central nervous system (CNS)”. When a prion enters a healthy organism, it induces existing, properly folded proteins to convert into the misfolded prion form, by altering their shape. Prions consist mostly of an abnormal form which characterizes as Prion Protein Scrapie (PrPSc) and the spreading of prion cause disease. The prion is a molecule, not a living organism, is naturally present on the surface of neurons and this disease occurs in sporadic, genetic, and acquired forms.
Since 1985, over 240 cases in several countries have been reported that people who recipients from HGH developed iCJD. 50% of hGH-iCJD and HGH control cases, developed CNS amyloid beta-protein (Aβ) accumulation, which characterizes by the accumulation of abnormal proteins in the pituitary gland and the CNS which is associated with Alzheimer’s disease-like neuropathology, vascular complications. HGH recipients may be at risk of developing the complications of cerebral amyloid angiopathy CAA, lobar cerebral hemorrhage, perivascular inflammation, and cognitive impairment. In the method five groups have been used, two groups treated with HGH compared to three groups not treated with HGH.
To improve your fitness and lose weight at the same time and do something more exciting than jogging on a treadmill to keep you motivated, perhaps you should consider doing a martial art like boxing, or kickboxing. In the last years, martial arts training is being used in cardio workouts for fitness and weight loss by personal trainers and coaches. Martial art training such as kickboxing is typically high intensity and usually lasts for at least an hour in most cases. High-intensity training requires much energy and oxygen and that can push the body to build up more mitochondria, and as we know that mitochondria are the fat-burning machine in our cells in the muscles. So, the more mitochondria we have, the more fat we will burn. Kickboxing can help burns a maximum number of kilojoules or calories per workout and therefore it is great for anyone who wants to lose weight fast. According to Chaabene, Tabben, Mkaouer, Franchini, and Negra “High-level male and female boxers show a propensity for low body fat levels” study shows also that elite-level male boxers are characterized by a higher proportion of mesomorph body type with a well-developed muscle mass and a low body fat level.
Kickboxing and cardiovascular fitness and endurance
Kickboxing maintains repetitive high-intensity actions and improves Cardiovascular ﬁtness. Cardiovascular fitness improvements require us to regularly elevate our heart rate for extended periods and most kickboxing training can help us do that.
Kickboxing Improving the strength and power
To improve or maintain muscle strength so muscles require us to regularly subject them to some form of resistance training or force. Kickboxing has to do with a force more than resistance training. Heavy resistance training can help us to activate more motor unite, but force training helps us to generate more power. To understand the case let’s look at this example. In physics, a force is any interaction that, when unopposed, will change the motion of an object. A force can cause an object with mass to change its velocity. Force can also be described intuitively as a push or a pull. (F=m.a), F= force, m is the invariant mass, and A is the acceleration.
Kickboxing Improving the strength and power
Some weight lifter who trains resistance training at the gym they may get their maximal strength, and may they can’t add more weight in their training and they stay at the same weigh for a long time and they can’t add more. Here is the best way for them to add more force and jump to a new weight. The key factor here is the acceleration, when acceleration increase then the force will increase according to the low. In sports science when the movement depends on the acceleration then it called ballistic movement. Now we should know that we can get strength not only from resistance training but also from ballistic movements. Why the ballistic movement? because the ballistic movement depends on acceleration. Boxing and kicking are the same as ballistic movements such as throwing iron balls.
Kickboxing Improving our bones density
Bones get more density when we subject them to some form of resistance training or force
The difference in Bone-Density
Kickboxing Improving the flexibility
When we are kicking and boxing our body temperature get high and that can help us to stretch the muscles easily
kickboxing helps us in self-defence
One of the most obvious benefits of doing kickboxing is that it provides us with the fitness, power, strength, skills, flexibility and techniques necessary to protect ourselves from being attacked by others who are out to harm us.
kickboxing helps us in self-confidence
kickboxing provides us a high degree of self-confidence. This self-confidence partly results from the knowledge and skills that we earned during training and interaction with others.
kickboxing improves body balance and coordination
Task coordination skills are acquired and improved under dual-task practice conditions, but not when practicing each task in isolation under single-task practice conditions (Hirst et al., 1980; Kramer et al., 1995; Strobach et al., 2014) that means kickboxing is better than only boxing for coordination improvement.
Performing two-component tasks simultaneously at the same time (i.e., dual tasks) can be extremely difficult but this difficulty is often reduced after practice. For example, if we kick with one leg and punching with tow arms at the same time, it will be difficult to perform it for the first time, but by practice, it will be easy. Under the practice, you will notice that you perform it with bad balance but when you get full control of the coordination of the movement then balance will be improved.
The cerebellum, in the back of the brain, controls balance, coordination, and fine muscle control. Uncoordinated movement is due to a muscle control problem that causes an inability to coordinate movements. Kickboxing helps us to use many elements together and control these elements during movement. During kicking and boxing, many muscles work together and that can improve our coordination.
kickboxing is inexpensive
Doing kickboxing is inexpensive because you don’t need many tools the only you need is Boxing Gloves, Mouth Guard, Shin Guards, Ankle Support Wraps (optional), Headgear, Hand Wraps. Most people train home or with friends and that makes kickboxing inexpensive compared to joining some gyms and hiring some personal trainers.
Doing Kickboxing has a social aspect
Instead of training at the gym with weight, bar, stone, and dumbbells, you can train boxing with friends or family. People can talk but gym equipment doesn’t do that.
Improve the nervoussystem
The central nervous system (CNS) driven by the brain and the spinal, Nervous system controls the body by billions of nerve cells called neurons. The central nervous system is divided into two parts: parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous systems. The parasympathetic nervous system supports your autonomic functions like breathing, metabolic rates, controls senses, and memories. Also, it controls the way we move, the words we talk, and how we think and learn, and so on. The sympathetic system activates what is often termed the fight or flight response. During practicing kickboxing, our bodies work as a whole unit and that can activate the Nervous system hardly by using feeling, muscles, thinking, and that can increase the connection between nerve cells.
Kickboxing Reduce Stress
One of the major benefits of kickboxing is to reduce stress, kickboxing can help increase the release of endorphins in your body. Endorphins hormones secreted within the brain and nervous system and having several physiological functions. Endorphins provide feelings of euphoria and make us feel good by inhibiting pain signals.
Size and shape
Kickboxing providing better shape because helps in burning fat and building muscles.
As a result of providing all of these fitness benefits. The best way to burn body fat during exercise and get the maximal effect of the aerobic capacity is to raise the heartbeat to the 70 % of the maximal heart capacity, to calculate the maximal heartbeat, you should subtract from the number 220, your actual age. Then you should multiple the difference with 70 % (0,70) for example a 30 years man wants to train with capacity 70% of a heartbeat. For example 220 – 30 = 90 => 90 . 0,70 = 133 beat.