Obesity Prevention Strategies presented by Astrakos’ society for public health, in this episode, we will teach you the childhood obesity prevention strategies, and how to secure your family from obesity, and what are the main factors that lead to it.
Usually, the pathway of life course effected often, by many involved factors, such as society, neighborhood, family, the individual, area, the cellular levels, the physiological and psychological aspect, as well as, the social exposures.
Recently life course epidemiologists explain how a father’s social class, in childhood, may affect the biological functions and the development of the adults. That means we must be careful about our children and understand that the bad social exposures, can affect negatively the health of our children, especially in puberty.
According to the world health organization, Everybody, less than 18 years of age, has the right of the child and considered as a child. That was adopted by the convention on the rights of the Child.
Childhood is the primary stage of life. What we eat, and do in childhood, has a big effect on adulthood life. Obesity is not only caused by food, but also by social aspects. Obesity rates have increased dramatically over the world in the last 30 years, the World Health Organization is raising the awareness about overweight, and obesity. Due to the increased number of obesity among children. In 2016, an estimated 42 million children under the age of 5, were overweight, or obese. Almost three-quarters of these, live in Asia and Africa. Overweight and obesity in early childhood, increase the risk for social discrimination, sleep apnea, high cholesterol, high blood pressure, type 2 diabetes, and obesity later in life.
Astrakos report is presenting a comprehensive and integrated package, of recommendations, to guide families to address childhood obesity. To create, healthy eating practices, and habits, to prevent obesity among children worldwide. Here we will summarize some key of actions, that are directed to the parents.
Childhood Obesity Prevention Strategies
Parents should promote the intake of healthy foods, which is rich in unsaturated fats, and omega 3, also food should be free from sugars or salt. Parents should also, reduce the intake of unhealthy foods at home.
The unhealthy foods are the foods, which are high in saturated fatty acids, trans- fats, and sugar-sweetened beverages, as well as the energy-dense foods, which have lots of calories per serving. The calories may come from protein, fat, or carbohydrates.
Inform your child, about childhood overweight and obesity, and tell l them about, the consequences of that on health and well-being.
Increase access to healthy foods at home.
Update your health information always, to get an effective prevention guide, of childhood obesity through the consumption of a healthy diet throughout the life course.
Ensure that nutrition information and guidelines for adolescents and children are delivered to adolescents and children in a simple, understandable, and, accessible manner.
Reduce the exposure of children and adolescents, to the power of the marketing of unhealthy foods.
Control the OBESOGENIC ENVIRONMENT, which promotes high energy intake, and sedentary behavior. This includes the foods, that are available, affordable, accessible, and promoted.
Control the physical activity opportunities, and the social norms, concerning food, and physical activity
Develop nutrient profiles, to identify unhealthy foods and beverages
Guide caregivers, on appropriate nutrition, diet, and portion size.
Implement comprehensive programs, that promote physical activity, and reduce sedentary behaviors in children and adolescents
Promote healthy lifestyles, for young children through promoting physical activity, because physical activity, is known to reduce the risk of diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and cancers.
Improve children’s ability to learn their mental health, and well-being. Childhood experience can influence lifelong by physical activity behaviors.
Promote the benefits of physical activity.
Provide guidance to children and adolescents, on healthy body size, physical activity, sleep behaviors, and appropriate use of screen-based entertainment.
Pregnancy is a very critical pathway for child obesity. The risk of obesity can be passed from one generation to the next, because, maternal health, can influence fetal development, and the risk of a child becoming obese.
The care, that women receive before during, and after pregnancy, has profound implications for the later health, and development of their children.
Diagnose and manage hyperglycemia, and gestational hypertension.
Promote a varied diet with all macro and micronutrients.
Promote plant-based foods such as vegetables, fruit, potatoes, whole grain products.
Ensure that diet and nutrition counseling is included in antenatal care.
Avoid the use of and exposure to tobacco, alcohol, drugs, and other toxins.
Provide guidance on and support for, healthy diet, sleep, and physical activity, in early childhood, to ensure that children grow appropriately, and develop healthy habits.
Including the breastfeeding, for the first six months of life, because breastfeeding is the core for optimizing infant development.
Work on early detection, and management of obesity and its associated complications.
Address health nutrition for weight management
Give psychosocial support. The mental health needs of children who are overweight or obese are crucial, including issues of stigmatization and bullying, need to be given special attention.
Obesity can be increased by, the physical environment, such as proximity to grocery stores, vending machines, and access to school food and drink.
Share with your child the foods that contribute to healthy diets, if it is not consumed in appropriate amounts.
Use social media to provide guidance on and support for a healthy diet. Studies have been shown that social media is a perfect way to influence your child.
As a caregiver, be the con-founder that affects the association, not the mediator.
Consider that adolescents will tend to eat the foods, that are available, affordable, accessible, and promoted.
Parents could affect the adolescents’ food choices by the same tools, that have been applied to the adolescents, which is social media.
Obesity leads to bullying, and harassment, oppositional defiant disorder and, conduct disorder.
Improve the availability of mechanisms for purchasing foods from farms.
Plan a physical education at least two times a week.
Improve access to outdoor activity.
Stay in touch with the healthcare center.
This was a presentation of the 37 key of actions, of Astrakos alexanders’ report, after reading all these keys, we on astrakos’ society we confirm that motivation is not enough, moving from motivation to actions could help much more. Also, we focus on parents, because parental values could affect the home environment, Parental values stand for the identity, that parents are caring, which usually impacted by personal thoughts and feeling. Furthermore, the perception that family receive from the public sources, selective services and education which include all, such as, internet, books, magazine, TV, and advertisement, as well as when parents, grandparents or friends undermine their rules over the children’s eating
Child mortality due to accidental injuries has been dropped sharply down since the last decades. In North Europe, small children usually get injured in the home. Whereas schoolchildren get injured during athletics or sports activities. Teenagers get injured on bicycles and mopeds. Even deaths among children from traffic accidents have fallen down but the risk of being injured in an accident varies across regions and social groups.
For instance, children who grow up in sparsely populated areas are often hospitalized as a result of poisoning. Also, the youth are more likely to be injured in traffic in this area. As well as, the children and young people who live in households with low socioeconomic status (SES), have a higher risk of being injured in traffic or by violence. Furthermore, moped injuries and automobile injuries could be prevented if the risk for children living with Low SES could be reduced to the same level as for children living in high SES.
The early childhood caries is a major problem in many countries, especially developing countries. That’s why we conducted a study in order to answer these questions about the prevalence, the risk factors, the prevention, the clinical classification and the etiology as well as the pathogens. Even we will present a list with the dispersion of early childhood caries among the world.
The Development Can Be Categorized As:
Environmental risk factors.
Clinical Classification Of Early Childhood Caries:
Type I (mild to moderate)
The existence of isolated carious lesions involving incisors and/or molars. The most common causes are a combination of semisolid or solid food and lack of oral hygiene.
Type II (moderate to severe)
Smooth surface lesions (labial-lingual lesions, approximal molar lesions). Caused by inappropriate use of feeding or at breast-feeding or a combination of both, with or without poor oral hygiene.
Type III (severe)
Early childhood caries was described as carious lesions affecting almost all teeth including the mandibular incisors. Caused by a combination of cariogenic food substances and poor oral.
The Etiology and Pathogens Of Early Childhood Caries
Maternal Oral Health
Lack or Fluoride Exposure
Which Disciplinary are Involved in The Diagnoses?
Many disciplinarians are involved in early childhood caries. For instance, the medical disciplinary, because the classification must be diagnosed at the dental clinic. Even the sociological disciplinary, because early childhood caries is preventive care that depends on the environmental factors, home care, and community care. Also the nutrition science discipline, diet is one of the causes for the exposure to carbohydrates. As well as the epidemiological disciplinary, because early childhood caries is categorized as a chronic, infectious disease.
What is The Prevalence Rate For The Early Childhood Caries
A review of the literature suggests that in most developed countries the prevalence rate is between 1 and 12%. In less developed countries and among the disadvantaged groups in the developed countries, the prevalence has been reported to be as high as 70%.
What Factors Lead to Early Childhood Caries?
The prevalence of early childhood caries, varies with several factors like race, culture, and ethnicity, socioeconomic status, lifestyle, dietary pattern, oral hygiene practices, from country to country and from area to area.
Gender and age
According to a study, the highest prevalence of early childhood caries, is found in the 3- to 4-year-old age group. Moreover, boys are significantly more affected than girls. Another epidemiological study from Europe found that early childhood caries is randomly dispersed in the populations.
Table shows the Early Childhood Caries in the low socioeconomic groups among the world
Childhood Caries Per Country
The family should be as unity, togetherness is important, especially during times of disease and distress. Teamwork leads to success, continuously, consistency, and happiness. These 18 tips should help you to reinforce your desire to promote keeping the family together as a unity.
18 steps to secure the relationship between children and family
Achieve positive and respectful relationships among family members.
Promote intimacy through words and actions.
Share feelings and experiences such as pain and sadness, as well as happiness and love, hard work, and humor.
The relationships between children and family are important for lots of reasons:
It makes the children feel secure and beloved, which helps their brains to develop due to less stress and well sleeping and eating.
It helps to solve problems and resolve the conflict between family members.
listen to your children if they want to talk about something troubling and help them find a way through the problem.
Steps to secure the relationship between children and family through positive verbal communication.
Positive verbal communication
Talk and share a laugh. For example, during family meals.
Have one-on-one chats with each family member to strengthen individual relationships. It can just be five minutes before each child goes to bed.
Educate them about sex, drugs, alcohol, and smoking.
Positive communication, listen to each other, listening without judgment
Show appreciation, love, and encouragement through words and affection. This can be as simple as saying ‘I love you’ to your children each night when they go to bed.
Steps to secure the relationship between children and family by positive non-verbal communication.
Positive non-verbal communication
Be aware of the non-verbal messages you send. For example, hugs, kisses, and eye contact send the message that you want to be close to your child.
Try to be the same and adapt to your children, because they get angry when they see their partner has different values, beliefs, or expectations, choppy, moody, or unstable. To read more about Teamwork and family relationships, contact us to purchase the product.
How do I know if I am a good caregiver for my child?
The attachment patterns between infants and caregivers can be measured in early childhood and there are categories used in these measurements. The name of the category is “Partner relationships” and the attachment pattern can be measured by “security”, “comfort” and “protection”. There the child wants to stay close to the caregiver because the child seeks security. Parents give care and protection after that the child can differentiate between secure persons and strangers.
For instance, if your child sees his uncle for the first time in his life and the child age is between one year to 5 years and the child shows love directly to the uncle then that means that the relationship between the caregiver and the child is less secure and if the child shows less love or interaction to the uncle then we can conclude that the relationship between the caregiver and the child is very secure. Children with a secure attachment in their first year of life develop better relationships with their parents and friends later. Also, when children interacting with their parents, then the children develop the ability to deal with emotionally stressful situations.
Risk factors in families/parents for insecure attachment during infancy.
When the mother is depressed, more often she experiences her child as irksome and that can give negative feelings towards the infant or child. Also, Separation and the lack of interaction between the child and family as well as parental alcohol use disorders because that can negatively affect the family situation during childhood.
Three potential negative consequences of the least favorable attachment pattern in infancy on the health and well-being of the child in pre-school years.
Sharing worries, fears, and aggressiveness in children at school due to the lack of emotional control as well as when the child prefers to stay outside of the home for a long time is the most visible sign on the child. Moreover, the consequences of these sighs could lead to difficultly in concentration and learning at the school.
A targeted intervention that can be implemented by health services to promote favorable attachment in families at risk.
Any program should start from the quality of parent-child interaction because that has a significant bearing on the child’s continued psychological development and wellbeing. Also, identifying and treating depression in mothers with infants. Even the child must spend an equal or substantial amount of time in the parents’’ respective homes’.
Death is death but the causes can vary from place to place and from person to person, what we know about death among children and how can we define the first phases of childhood. The first phase is the neonatal phase which starts from the first day 0 -27 days, at this phase prematurity or preterm is the biggest major of death, from a gender perspective, boys in the neonatal period tend to have more difficulty surviving during delivery and in the first month of life.
The infancy phase is the first year of life, one of the deaths causes in infancy is perinatal Low body weight (LBW- prematurity). For instance, in Sweden over 40 percent of infant deaths are caused by problems related to delivery, pregnancy, and the process of adaptation during the neonatal period.
The postneonatal phase is between 1-59 months and Pneumonia is a major cause of death. There is also the 5-9 years phase, there motor vehicle and other accidents are responsible for approximately a quarter of all deaths among girls and a third of deaths among boys. The school-age phase has also obesity because it could increase the risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease in adulthood and could be a primary risk factor for bullying.
The most complex cause is the sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) and that cause has decreased dramatically during the last decades. SIDS referred to as ‘unexplained infant deaths. Since 1990, parents have begun laying infants on their backs rather than on their stomachs and that made the rate of sudden infant death syndrome to decline.
Moreover, the reduction in the infant mortality rate was due to the easy access to the health care system and due access to better care during delivery. The improvement in the economy of the country, which led to better mothers’ living conditions, the high percentage of breastfed infants, the low childhood accident rate, and the high proportion of vaccinated children which led to less serious infectious disease. As well as identifying the common causes of neonatal mortality such as preterm birth and LBW.
Also, the risk factors that can affect the infant during fetal life such as smoking. For instance, smokers in early pregnancy in Sweden has decreased by more than 30% since 1983. By knowing that smoking during pregnancy may cause preterm birth and other consequences, we can reduce the risk of infant death later in life. Even environmental medical analyses and supplemental intake has been contributed to the reduction. The societal compensation for maternity leave for breastfeeding could reduce also the risk of infant mortality. This change has changed the socioeconomic distribution of this health problem by easy access to the health care system and the risen of health equity.
The causes of death among children in a high-income country
- The prematurity or preterm death
- The perinatal low body weight (LBW- prematurity)
- The Pneumonia
- The motor vehicle and other accidents
- The sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS)
Most people are driven by misconceptions and myths about pediatric resistance training. Some of the myth are:
Children are more susceptible to injury due to the un-fused growth plates.
Resistance training would be harmful to the developing skeleton.
Children cannot gain strength from resistance training due to a lack of testosterone.
Weights training will stunt children and adolescent’s growth.
In this article, we aim to give athletes, coaches, and parents a better understanding of the health benefit from resistant training and the manual to understand the case such as:
What age is appropriate to start strength training?
What is the frequency of strength training?
What is the intensity of strength training?
What are the rest periods?
What is the recommended volume?
What is the risk of training at childhood age?
All these questions and more questions related to this subject we answer it with high quality of references from the newest articles in the research industry.
What age is appropriate to start strength training?
A study conducted in Australia by Duhig with 18 prepubescent under <12 years of age. Children were strength-trained three times per week for 9 weeks and the result ended with a 42.9% increase in strength. The increase was in adaptations in muscle excitation-contraction coupling, increasing motor unit activation, and improving motor skill coordination. On the contrast of the myth that says “weights training will stunt children and adolescent’s growth” a large study from the UK conducted by Lloyd, confirmed that resistant training gives positive alterations in overall body composition and metabolic health in children and adolescents.
The befit of strength training for children
For children strength training can enhance cardiac function.
Enhance bone-mineral density and improve skeletal health.
Muscular strength increases due to the maturation of the central nervous system such as improvements in motor unit recruitment.
Improvement in firing frequency.
Improvement in synchronisation.
Improvement in neural myelination.
A study has shown that children 5–6 years of age made noticeable improvements in muscular ﬁtness with resistance training exercises using free weights, elastic resistance bands and machine weights.
The benefits of strength training for Adolescents
For adolescents, resistance training can increase muscular strength due to the structural changes that resulting from the increase of hormonal concentrations, for males more due testosterone, growth hormone, and insulin-like growth factor, which lead to increases in muscle cross-sectional area due increasing in muscle fiber size.
The increase in the number of muscle fibers determined as a result of prenatal myogenesis which means the formation of muscular tissue, particularly during embryonic development.
Increasing activation in the motor unit and improving the neural development, in additional resistance training can even reduce body fat, improve insulin sensitivity, and reduce injury risk.
On the contrast to the traditional fears and misinformed concerns that says, “resistance training would be harmful to the developing skeleton” The fears that resistance training would injure the growth plates of youths or reduce eventual height in adulthood are not supported by scientiﬁc reports or clinical observations, furthermore it will increase bone-mineral density. For female resistance training programmes have been shown to reduce abnormal biomechanics, induce the neuromuscular spurt and decrease injury rates.
Elsewhere, another study by Micheli estimated on the contrast of the myth that says “Children are more susceptible to injury due to the un-fused growth plates” suggests that chance to have injury is less in a child (<13 years of age) than of an adolescent (13-19 years of age) because the epiphyseal plate of a child is stronger and more resistant to shearing forces.
What is the epiphyseal plate?
The epiphyseal plate is an area where the formation of new bone is possible. It is located at each end of long bones. In this area remodeling and development of new bone occur enabling the long bone to grow in length and girth until the closure of the growth plate at skeletal maturity. The plate is found in children and adolescents and after that age the entire cartilage becomes replaced by bone, leaving only a thin epiphyseal scar which later disappears.
The epiphyseal plate consists of three principal layers with immature cells in the resting zone. “Stem-like cells in the resting zone have a finite proliferative capacity that is gradually exhausted, which consequently results in the fusion of the growth plate at the end of puberty” (EMONS et al. 2009, P. 654).
The recommended training program for children and adolescents
The recommended training program should include exercises that target the balance, coordination, and strength at the same movement with complex movement with the right technique.
What is the minimum age for training?
The minimal age for a child to start weight training is 6 years of age.
How many times should the youth train?
According to two studies the athlete should weight train 2-3 days per week.
In which intensity should youth train?
The intensity should be 6-15RM or 50-85% 1RM the studies mention that intensity should be moderate to high. For those who are overweight and has obese low intensity is recommended. The rest period is at least 3 minutes between sets and exercises while another study says one minute should sufﬁce for most children.
How much volume should the youth train?
A study mentions that an overall volume of 1-3 sets per muscle group while a long duration for those who are overweight and has obese.
Adolescents and youth should not train strength training without supervision
According to Jonasson et al. (2014) overloading the hips in growing individuals can disrupt the epiphyseal plate. Even Faigenbaum et al. (2009, P. 62) mention that growth cartilage can be easily damaged by repetitive microtrauma, improper lifting techniques, or maximal lift. That’s why We in Astrakos.com think that strength training should be followed by the supervision of a qualified trainer because if youth hurt themselves in the epiphyseal plate in a sport especially by accident injury, that can lead sometimes to deleterious or dysfunction in that area and may growth not occur partially or completely. We want to mention also that most of the studies have investigated muscles related issues, bone density, neural issues, fat issues, but there are limited studies that investigate bone volume and length. That’s why new studies should be conducted with a focus not only on bone density but also on the bone volume and length.
Duhig. S. (2013). strength training for the young athlete. Journal of Australian strength and conditioning. Journal of Australian strength and conditioning. 21(4), pp. 53-58. (02-01-2018)
Emons, J., Chagin, A, S., Hultenby, K., Zhivotovsky, B., Wit, J, m., Karperien, M. & Sävendahl, L. (2009). Epiphyseal Fusion in the Human Growth Plate Does not Involve Classical Apoptosis. International pediatric research foundation. 66(6), pp. 654-659. DOI:0031-3998/09/6606-0654.
Faigenbaum, D., Kraemer, W, J., Blimkie, C., Jeffreys, I., Micheli, L, J., Nitka, M & Rowland, T, W. (2009). Youth resistance training: updated position statement paper from the national strength and conditioning association. National strength and conditioning Association. (23), pp. 60-79. Doi: 10.1519/JSC.0b013e31819df407.
Jonasson, P, S., Ekström, L., Swärd, A., Sansone, M., Ahlden, M. & Karlsson, J. (2014). Strength of the porcine proximal femoral epiphyseal plate: the effect of different loading directions and the role of the perichondrial fibrocartilaginous complex and epiphyseal tubercle – an experimental biomechanical study. journal of experimental orthopaedics. 1 (4), p.1. Doi.org/10.1186/s40634-014-0004-y.
Lloyd, S,R., Faigenbaum, A, D., Stone, M, H ., Oliver, J, L., Jeffreys, I., Moody, J, A., Brewer, C., Pierce, C, K., McCambridge M, T., Howard, R., Herrington, L., Hainline,H., Micheli, J, L., Jaques,R., Kraemer, W, J., McBride, G, M., Best, T, M., Chu,D, A., Alvar,B, A. & Myer, G, D. (2013). Position statement on youth resistance training. International consensus. pp. 1-12. doi:10.1136/bjsports2013-092952.