Smoking from the perspectives of biological process, life course and social context
The pathway of life course affected often by many involves factors such as society, neighborhood, family, individual, area, the physiological, psychological, and cellular levels, and ultimately the social exposures. Smoking in the life course is associated with one or more factors that have been accumulated the risk with correlated and uncorrelated exposures across the life course. Most smokers began smoking at an earlier age at the crowded alleys.
According to Ben-Shlomo, Mishra, and Kuh (2014) living in a poor neighborhood may be associated with smoking. Even the risk of smoking may be associated with depression and the risk of depression can be associated with a genetic variant because health is a function of genetic and environmental exposures, so one factor can lead to another factor and the accumulation of the factors can increase the risk of smoking.
The biological function in the life course such as diabetes, blood pressure, muscle strength, lung function, and cognitive function are related to the aging process across the life course.
According to Marmot (2015) Smoking may cause biological aging such as heart disease and lung cancer, lung cancer can be preventable by eliminating smoking. That’s mean that not all people will get lung cancer due to smoking, but the risk of lung cancer will increase.
It does not further our understanding that the health of the adult usually depends upon the health of the child and the health of the child is dependent upon the health of the infant and its mother. Ben-Shlomo et al. (2014) explain the chain of risk additive model and how each exposure increases the risk and how one risk leads to another and how that can be applied to smoking.
Smoking may directly result in subclinical atherosclerosis through an inﬂammatory effect on the arterial wall, but it also reduces exercise behavior due to respiratory symptoms. This in turn results in reduced aerobic capacity but also increases obesity. This in turn results in insulin resistance syndrome and is a risk factor for coronary heart disease (Ben-Shlomo et al., 2014, p. 1528).
That’s why we should look at the causes of the causes because each factor leads to another and the accumulation of cellular and molecular damage could lead to biological aging.