The history behind the word “Protein”
According to Johansson the word protein used for the first time in history, by the Swedish chemist Jöns Jakob. He took it and designed it from proteios in the Greek language which means primarily.
Why are proteins important?
Protein is the building blocks for the body’s structure, and every gram of protein contains 4 calories. There are about 100,000 different kinds of protein chains in a human body, these are made up of 20 different amino acids, 9 of them are essential, must come from food sources, because the body can’t make them. Protein contributes to bones, muscles, brain arteries and veins, heart, liver, kidneys, lungs skin, hair, fingernails, connective tissue, cell membranes are built of tissue made of proteins.
Protein types– fibrous and globular proteins
There are two main types of proteins fibrous and globular proteins, fibrous protein is filamentous, strong, insoluble in water. Available in hair, skin, nails, tendons, and muscles. Globular protein is spherical look like a globe, water-soluble, can be transported with the blood, play many biological roles, including acting as enzymes, hormones, antibodies, immunoglobulins, and transport molecules. hemoglobin is an example of a globular protein found in red blood cells. Protein is a building material in cells, the protein makes up about 96% of the red blood cells, help carry the oxygen, About 50% of one cell consist of protein, protein is biologically active in the body, a protein used to build enzymes and hormones, even an antibody shaped of protein which is also known as an immunoglobulin.
The best source of protein
Protein is the building material for the body and the amount of protein in the food can vary depending on the protein variety and their biological value and their ability to be absorbed in the intestine. According to the Nordic Council of Ministers (2014) not all proteins in the body are oxidized after the meal, some amino acids are excreted in urine and the biological value of protein in pulses food is 78% while animal products have 97%. The best source of protein depends on the purpose and body’s status, for example, people who have kidney problems shale eat egg white, another example, the best source of protein for a healthy bodybuilder is beef.
The recommended protein intake
Protein intake for adults and children from 2 years of age should be between 10-20% of the total energy intake. The daily needs of protein for athletes are about twice compared with inactive. Less than 1.6 g multiplied by body weight can lead to negative nitrogen balance in athletes. Moreover, insufficient protein can impair the immune system and T-cell systems.
Proteins can be denatured (denature = proteins changes shape and properties) denaturing can be done via,
-Solvents, we know that the protein consists of hydrophobic / hydrophilic parts, so it is obvious that a protein changes its form depends on the solvents if solvents are polar or apolar.
– pH, Protein charge ratio depending on pH- (potential of hydrogen)
-Temperature, Increased temperature causes increased molecular motion => the protein is broken up.
For example, the protein in the raw egg has a concentrated shape, when we cock the egg, the egg turns to be bigger, that happens because of the changes that happened due the denaturing. The protein in the egg after cocking is randomly structured and the shape and properties are not the same before cocking. Another example, when you mix the egg white in a mixer then tend to be bigger and change the color, that happens due to denaturing.